Frequent Questions

Many people wonder about these things…

“But set apart  יהוה  Mashi’akh in your hearts;
and be ready to give an answer in meekness and reverence
to everyone who seeks from you a word concerning
the hope of your absolute trust,”
-Kefa Alef 3:15 [First Peter]

Legalism is not very well understood today by many believers. Most people who think that there is no use for the Torah today declare anyone who’s trying to follow it as “legalistic.” This is just another case of misunderstanding the Word of G-d.

Legalistic Legalism

To those who say that Sabbath keepers are legalistic we ask, “Why, then, go to Church on Sunday?” Is it a “law” for your life? Are you not legalistic in doing so? What is the difference? Legalism is what the Pharisees were guilty of: they were trying to “enforce” the “traditions of their men,” versus the commandments of G-d! So legalism that is from the enemy is the attempt by the religious to impose traditions of men on believers in place of the commandments of יהוה! This is exactly what the “Sunday-go-to-meeting tradition” is, as well as the modern “tithe” concept. Legalism is also judging someone else in how they obey יהוה. We do not judge (tell others they’re not saved). But, we do defend our right and call to obey G-d ourselves.

Look at what Messiah said to the Pharisees:

Mat 15:2-9 (a very similar episode is seen in Mark 7:3-13)

(Pharisees speaking to Messiah) “Why do thy disciples transgress the tradition of the elders, for they wash not their hands when they eat bread. But He answered and said unto them, Why do ye also transgress the commandment of God by your tradition? For God commanded, saying, Honour thy father and mother: and, He that curseth father or mother, let him die the death. But ye say, Whosoever shall say to his father or his mother, It is a gift, by whatsoever thou mightest be profited by me; And honour not his father or his mother, he shall be free. Thus have ye made the commandment of God of none effect by your tradition. Ye hypocrites, well did Esaias prophesy of you, saying, This people draweth nigh unto me with their mouth, and honoureth me with their lips; but their heart is far from me. But in vain they do worship me, teaching for doctrines the commandments of men.”

This is what “legalism” is. G-d is the one who set down the Torah of His Commandments, not men. But men set down “Sunday” worship, Christmas, Easter, modern use of a Torah command called “tithe,” which was rolled up into the priesthood and sacrifice of Messiah, and many other such “traditions” that are now taught as “law,” or covenantal truth. Many of those who say others are “legalistic” are themselves more so, by strictly adhering to tithing and Sunday worship, and other man-made traditions to which their adherents must cling.

To those who accuse Sabbath keepers and those who endeavor to follow Torah of being “legalistic,” a question must be posed: “Which commandment is it that is bothersome?” Is it the “do not commit adultery” command? Or “do not steal,” or “do not bear false witness,” or “do not covet,” or “do not take the name יהוה in vain,” or “do not worship idols,” or “do not worship another god,” or “do not murder?” Because, if the law has passed away, then so have all of these commands, which are the foundation of the law. And the other foundational command is “Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy.” What differentiates this Sabbath command from the other nine? Why did it go away, and not the others? If the law has passed away, and many who accuse Sabbath/Torah keepers of legalism vehemently declare that it has, as a means of not observing Sabbath, then all of the law has passed away, including the other nine commands. Think about it some more.

The only thing, the only thing that makes Messianic believers “appear” legalistic is the observance of Sabbath, and perhaps the keeping of the other feasts. Decide, did G-d command the Sabbath, or did man. Did G-d command “Sunday” worship as a ‘Sabbath’, changing His word and His eternal decree about the “seventh” day (Genesis 2), or did man? We assert that all Christians try to keep the Sabbath: they just do it wrong, on the wrong day! If it is legalism to observe Shabbat, then all believers are legalistic, because every “church” we’ve ever heard of picks a day to meet! And many call Sunday the Sabbath. Man did it, man changed the declared Sabbath of יהוה, deeming it obsolete, and named Sunday the Sabbath in the fourth century AD (see our article called “History”), and most of Christendom has blindly followed, just as the Pharisees blindly followed their fathers in men’s traditions. “But in vain they do they worship me, teaching for doctrines the commandments of men.” – Yeshua. This was predicted in Jeremiah: “Our fathers have inherited naught but lies, vanities, and things wherein there is no profit.” And after a lengthy discourse on those “errors,” יהוה explains the root of the problem: “Thus saith יהוה: take heed for the sake of your souls: bear not burden on the Sabbath Day!”

The Word says, “I am יהוה, and I do not change,” and “Yeshua the Messiah is the same yesterday, today, and forever.” He observed the Sabbath, and will continue to forever.

In the verse Messiah quoted (Matt 15:9), the word for “doctrines” is, in the Greek, didiskalia. This word is only used twice in the Greek version of the Tanak (Old Testament). In one place, Proverbs 2:17, it translates the Hebrew word “brit” (covenant), and in another place, Isaiah 29:13 (the verse Messiah quoted), it translates the Hebrew word “mitzvah,” or commandment. So, Yeshua is telling them that they make a covenant with their fathers and follow their teachings as if they were commandments. They are agreeing (covenant) with the words of their teachers more than they are with the mitzvoth (commandments) of G-d. This is true of most Christians today. And they do the same thing to us as the Pharisees did to Messiah.

A covenant is an “agreement” between two parties. We as Messianic believers have decided to agree with G-d, and walk as He would have us walk, worship as He would have us worship, observe what He would have us observe. Nowhere does the Bible negate His commands, and those who say it does do so in blindness and willful ignorance, not heeding the very Words of the Christ they claim to worship. Do we condemn them (accuse of not being saved)? No! But neither should they condemn us, nor call us legalistic, or, worse, accuse us of being led of the devil (which has happened for this congregation: see Matt 12:32 and decide if the Holy Spirit leads one to obey G-d or not). “But blessed are those who hear the Word of G-d and obey it”. Yeshua (Luke 11:28)

Obedience is far different from legalism. It is the Messiah Yeshua, Yeshua Christ, who says over and over that we should obey… obey? Let’s look at other scriptures and see what Yeshua wants His followers to “obey”, which means simply to keep His commandments:

Matthew 5:19

Whosoever therefore shall break one of these least commandments (of the law, clearly seen in the previous two verses), and shall teach men so, he shall be called the least in the kingdom of heaven: but whosoever shall do and teach them, the same shall be called great in the kingdom of heaven.

Matthew 19:17

And he said unto him, Why callest thou me good? there is none good but one, that is, God: but if thou wilt enter into life (born again), keep the commandments.

Luke 10:25-28

And, behold, a certain lawyer stood up, and tempted him, saying, Master, what shall I do to inherit eternal life? He said unto him, What is written in the law? how readest thou? And he answering said, Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy strength, and with all thy mind; and thy neighbour as thyself. And he said unto him, Thou hast answered right: this do, and thou shalt live.

John 14:15

If ye love me, keep my commandments.

John 14:21

He that hath my commandments, and keepeth them, he it is that loveth me: and he that loveth me shall be loved of my Father, and I will love him, and will manifest myself to him. (See also 1 John 2:3-6)

John 14:24

He that loveth me not keepeth not my sayings: and the word which ye hear is not mine, but the Father’s which sent me.

Matt 5:17-18

Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfill. For verily I say unto you, Till heaven and earth pass, one jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the law, till all be fulfilled.

John 12:46-50

I am come a light into the world, that whosoever believeth on me should not abide in darkness. And if any man hear my words, and believe not, I judge him not: for I came not to judge the world, but to save the world. He that rejecteth me, and receiveth not my words, hath one that judgeth him: the word that I have spoken (G-d’s Word), the same shall judge him in the last day. For I have not spoken of myself; but the Father which sent me, he gave me a commandment, what I should say, and what I should speak. And I know that his commandment is life everlasting: whatsoever I speak therefore, even as the Father said unto me, so I speak.

So there is a difference between doing what men say, which is “legalism”, and obeying G-d. The scriptures say, “Obedience is better than sacrifice”. It is incumbent upon us to obey His Word, all of it. Nowhere in scripture are we commanded to change the Sabbath, nor to do away with it: nowhere. Also, there are “traditions” of G-d that are not men’s traditions, such as the Sabbath, and the other festivals, and all the early believers were compelled to follow them by their apostolic teachers:

2 Th 2:15

Therefore, brethren, stand fast, and hold the (Jewish) traditions which you have been taught, whether by word, or our epistle.

2 Th 3:6

Now we command you, brethren, in the name of our Lord Yeshua the Messiah, that you withdraw yourselves from every brother that walketh disorderly, and not after the (Jewish) tradition which he received of us.

1 Cor 11:2

Hold fast to the (Jewish) traditions which I have delivered to you.

This is not legalism, but obedience for proper, biblical order of worship… (see our articles). Legalism is when one takes a command or commands or human traditions and tries to enforce it in someone else’s life, asserting they are not of G-d if they do not adhere to their will! We have never done that. We encourage righteousness and good works, as the New Testament tells us to. That is all. We do assert that many Christians, true believers, are in error, most of them innocently (although it is the individual’s duty to seek truth), and we fully believe it is our call to help those who are willing in themselves to change, and begin to obey G-d more fully. Not to control them, nor burden them, but to give them the Joy of the Torah (See Psalm 119). Again, obedience is not legalism. If it is, then Yeshua the Messiah was legalistic, because He obeyed all the commands. He did this not to save Himself, but to “fulfill all righteousness”. In the same way, we do this not to save ourselves, but to “fulfill all righteousness”. He told John, “in doing this we fulfill all righteousness”. John was not divine, but had to ‘obey’, in order to make the value of Torah effective in this world. If Yeshua had not submitted, we would not have a Savior, and we would not have the power to obey, nor the grace that covers our failures. He came to give us “power not to sin”, and sin is breaking His commands. Obedience is far different from legalism.

Kosher Yeshua

The scriptures do not emphatically declare Him to have been kosher, unless one understands what that means and what the Word says about Him: “He who knew no sin”. The Torah declares that eating foods that were not “clean” was a sin. Messiah knew no sin, which means He kept a kosher diet.

Peter helps to prove this, indirectly: when Peter had his vision of the “sheets”, seeing all manner of unclean animals and being told to kill and eat them, he said, “NOT SO, L-RD! Nothing unclean has ever touched my lips!” Peter was a dear friend of the Messiah, and a fellow Jew, and Jews simply did not violate the dietary laws of Leviticus 11.

Many use this scripture to try to assert that G-D had cleansed all the animals and made them suitable food, but that’s not how Peter interpreted the vision: “God has shown me not to call any MAN unclean”. (Acts 10:28) The fact that Peter remained kosher is established in several places later on. Peter associates himself with Torah-keeping Jews in Acts 15, while at the same time acknowledging that Jew and Gentile alike are saved by grace, and not by the works of the law. Peter knew, as do we, that being kosher, or keeping Shabbat, or being circumcised does NOT save anyone. But, he also remained kosher, and a Sabbath keeper (he could not overturn his circumcision!). Peter asserted that Jews should not lay the “burden” of the law on gentiles as a requirement for salvation (Acts 15:11), but they did lay a “measure” of the law on them as a minimum requirement for fellowship, and some of that minimum requirement was a partial kosher diet! (Acts 15:20-21, 28-29). Peter and the other Jews, including James, the brother of the Messiah Yeshua, still remained kosher, and required the new gentile converts to be partially kosher in order to be in good standing with the synagogue. Verse twenty-one is the key to understanding Peter’s and James’ mind on this: “For Moses (the Torah) has been preached in every city from the earliest times and is read in the synagogues on every Sabbath”. The gentiles would hear, and be lead by the Holy Spirit to do with the Torah what יהוה would have them do in the process of writing His Torah in their hearts.

Was Sha’ul (Paul) kosher? Yes.

“Although I have done nothing against our people, nor against the customs of our ancestors…” (Acts 28:17)
“I have done nothing wrong against the law of the Jews…” (Acts 25:4)
“I believe everything that agrees with the law (Torah) and that is written in the prophets…” (Acts 24:14)
“I was ceremonially clean [which includes kosher] when they found me in the temple courts doing this” [offering sacrifices] (Acts 24:18)
“Brothers, I have fulfilled my duty to G-D in all good conscience to this day”…(Acts 23:1)
“You yourself [James says to Paul] are living in obedience to the law [Torah]. (Acts 22:24)

So, why would Sha’ul write what he wrote to Timothy?

“to be at a distance from foods which G-D created for participation with thankfulness…”

The question is, what does Sha’ul consider food created for “participation”, or consumption? The answer is anything listed in Leviticus 11! This is where “food” is consecrated in the Word of G-D. The Messiah said that we ourselves should be “consecrated” by His Word: “Sanctify them by thy truth: thy WORD is truth”. So, the food that is consecrated in Leviticus 11 is the food mentioned here, not all animals.

A study on “food”.

The first word in scripture for “food” is brosis: trees “good for food”. (Gen 2:9) Same word is used of the forbidden fruit; this word actually means, “good for eating”. This ‘food’ is anything that is eaten at all. Clearly, the forbidden fruit is forbidden, but still edible, just as pork is forbidden but still edible.

Next we see “broma”, which is used in Genesis 6:21 in speaking of grains and such for the animals and No’akh on the ark: acceptable food. Note that at this point, no one ate meat of any kind. Humanity was told to eat meat after the flood. Later, יהוה wrote into the law the restrictions on food, specifically in Leviticus 11. This word “broma” is used exclusively in Leviticus 11 to denote food “which may be eaten”.

In Psalm 136, 146, 147, we learn that G-D gives food to all beings, and the word for food in each of these texts is “trophe”, and is the general term for food, not “broma” which is the consecrated food. If ALL food were consecrated, the writer would have used this word, “trophe”, which is the general word for “food”. Jews used the word “broma” only to speak of kosher food. Sha’ul is actually telling Timothy not to allow anyone to teach others to abstain from kosher foods! And he said that this would happen in the “last days”, and in the context of people “leaving the faith”! And that with it would come the compunction to forbid people to marry! We don’t do that! Only people who “leave” Judaism stop eating kosher! The ‘christian’ practice of forbidding to marry did come with silly restrictions on food in the catholic church. Others have blindly accepted their teachings on the topic. We do not.

Now, we at Congregation Bat-Tzion do our best to follow, at a minimum, the mandate in Acts 15, and some of us have endeavored to become more kosher in our eating, only because it is “beneficial” to us; not to declare that others who do not are not saved. We do not condemn anyone who eats non-kosher foods. But, neither do we buy the idea that the apostles taught others to eat whatever they wanted, or that they turned from Judaism at all. They clearly did not. The decision to eat Kosher should be one led by the Holy Spirit as one studies the Word and begins to see the earthly benefit of being obedient to heaven. Science is proving that the Levitical diet is very healthy. יהוה knew that already.

What is “tithe”?

In Hebrew, where the concept originates [actually, it was first a Canaanite custom, a “tax” from the kings on the plains of Canaan to live in the city-states, or around them; the promise was that if one paid the tithe, the king would offer protection from raiders], the word is “ma’aser”, which means “a tenth”. Most of the time in the scriptures the word is seen in its noun form: its verb form is asar, “to give a tenth”, and is only used once, in Deuteronomy 14. The Greek for this word is apodekatoo [and variations]. The noun form is “dekatos”, a tenth.

This topic tickles us the most, when it comes to Christian churches that push this button so much, and out of the other side of their mouths say that the law has passed away. What doublespeak!

“You have ROBBED god!” they will vehemently declare, on SUNDAY!

Nowhere, not ONE place, in the New Testament is anyone commanded to tithe. NOT ONE PLACE. So, IF Christians are going to use this mitzvah, and they do more than any other, HOW can they then ignore the mitzvah to observe Sabbath, not to eat unclean food, not to serve idols? This is the best representation of the poorest logic among supposedly educated spiritual leaders.

Giving that is divine is giving that comes from the heart, not by coercion. The amount does NOT matter.

What the “tithe” was in the Torah was a means to take care of the Levites, who had no inheritance when they crossed into the Promised Land; they couldn’t even own land. Their job was to perform the sacrifices on behalf of the rest of Israel, tend to the tabernacle/temple, and teach the Torah to the people. They had no source of income, so the rest of Israel was to give them part of their tithe [noun], so that the Levites would be sustained. And guess what, the Levites were supposed to give a tenth part of all the tithe they received to יהוה !

With the renewal of the covenant, the priesthood shifted, since Messiah Yeshua became our high priest. The Aaronic priesthood was about sacrificial worship, which included the tithe. The sacrificial system of Aaron has transferred to Yeshua, and with it the tithe; theoretically, every Christian agrees with the Messiah becoming every sacrifice in the Torah, or we’d be offering bulls and goats. Why this one sacrifice, why cling to it? This tithe is the ONE commandment preachers like to command, and it is a gross misuse of scripture. Nowhere in the New Covenant did anyone tell the Body to give a tenth part for the support of ministers who “ministered” full time. Nowhere! This did not come about for many centuries, under Catholic domination, whose popes desired to restore the model of the Levitical priesthood, and enjoy wealth in a world plagued by poverty. This is another feature of Catholicism Protestants refuse to protest. This is the sin of Nicolaitanism, where there is a paid “clergy” that withholds knowledge from a “laity”, whom they deem not worthy/capable of it.

The tithe actually served several purposes: to feed the poor, sustain the Levites, and to finance communion with יהוה! The Levites effectively got one third of the tithe: every third year, the tithe was to be brought into the gates (of the Temple) and given to the Levites, so that they would have plenty to live off of. Another third was to be given to the poor. The rest of it was to finance a trip to Jerusalem for the person whose tithe it was, and they were commanded to “eat it [the tithe] before יהוה. One Third [1/3] of the tithe was for the tither!

The command “to tithe” is in Deuteronomy 14. This was a savings account for the Pilgrim Feasts, as יהוה had commanded all Jews to come to Jerusalem three times a year for a feast each time: Passover, Shavuot, and Tabernacles. The tithe was used for those purposes. One third, again, was for the Levites, and the Levites gave a tenth of that to יהוה . In Malakhi, where יהוה said, “you rob me in your tithes and your offerings”, He was concerned not for Himself [G-D does NOT need our money], but for the poor, who could not feed themselves, and the Levite, who was not permitted to own anything, and who served the people daily and in the Temple five times per year. Also, they Jews were likely by that time not fully participating in the pilgrim feasts, as that is what the last 1/3 of the tithe was for. It is robbing G-D, not monetarily, but by not having communion with Him and all of Israel as He desired! This is a neglect of Passover, Shavuot, and Tabernacles, which Christians today also neglect!

It is fitting to “offer” anything one wants to offer to יהוה. It is fitting to give to the work of ministry. But it is NOT fitting to command men that they should give ten percent of their income to a church, and then tell them they are free from the rest of the law. If we truly wanted to follow the New Covenant model, we would give ALL THAT WE HAVE, share everything with our brethren! But, what the New Covenant says about giving is that it should be done with a cheerful heart, and with the measure that the giver is willing to give cheerfully. NO OTHER LIMIT OR DEMAND is placed on New Covenant givers. We are ALL priests in his kingdom, and NO ONE should bilk money from people and call it righteous, using a single command of G-D for an offering which Messiah became, and then ignore all other commands. This puts a person in a sore pickle with יהוה. It is duplicity.

At Congregation Bat-Tzion, we do not ask anyone for money. The LORD will provide, and He puts love in the congregation’s heart to sustain the ministry financially. As people serve יהוה, and are fed by the Word, and receive the communion of the saints, יהוה will guide their hearts in their giving. And we have never done without. When Moses built the tabernacle, the people were compelled to give “whatever they could cheerfully give”, and they gave so much Moses had to ask them to stop giving. THAT is the model of Congregation Bat-Tzion. We are all priests. We are all supposed to be giving of our love and time to one another, more importantly than anything else. Many people tithe as a means to appease G-D, hoping it stacks up in their favor on judgment day, or many today do it for a “Return On Investment”, thinking that יהוה will pour it out on them if they “tithe”; or, many do so innocently because that’s what they’ve been told They are likely in financial bondage for it, so that preachers can continue to compel them to tithe, dangling the prosperity carrot in front of their congregations.

The poor will always be with us. And יהוה shows that our excess, whatever falls from the tree, is for them daily. It was called “glean”, not tithe. Giving to the poor beyond 1/3 should not have a number on it, either. Just a heart of compassion done daily to assure no one goes without. In modern terms, it is our “change”. If we gave all our “change” for the poor in our country, there’d be no hunger. No one would do without. THAT is the idea behind tithing and giving, not financing a robed/suited figure who gets fat off the sacrifices of others, holding them in derision if they don’t tithe, watching them do without so he can be fat.

If one tithes because he feels יהוה wants him to, יהוה will bless. But, יהוה offered plenty of other opportunities to give beyond the tithe for Levites and feasts. Giving is more an “offering” than a tithe, as we can’t go to a Temple in Jerusalem right now for the feasts, and there is no priesthood to support. So, we are free to give, again, whatever we can give with a cheerful heart, gladly, not seeking ROI.

Jews are the ones who are commanded to tithe; and if you join a Synagogue, not even they charge a ten percent “tithe”. In order to be a member of most synagogues, the fee is 2% a year for young families [with kids], and 3 percent a year for those whose kids are grown and gone. They understand it properly, that there is no priesthood right now; but they understand they need to support the synagogue, and they pay 1/3 of a 10th part for that! If there were a temple, the other 2/3 of the tenth part would be for themselves, to make a journey to Jerusalem for Passover, Shavuot, and/or Tabernacles. We submit that those who demand ten percent for the Church are actually the ones who are robbing G-D! Falsifying the purpose of the tithe to line their own pockets, giving them a safety net.

“Freely you have received, freely give”…to whomever you are led by G-D.

It would do well that pastors read the following:

Ezekiel Chapter 34

There are many other places where the leaders were chastened for charging money for the services of יהוה, including in the New Covenant. We will update this article as time permits with more information.


Seeing the Torah as the foundation also opened the door to SO many more questions and a lifetime of pursuing the depth and meat of the word. Only through the Torah [Genesis through Deuteronomy] can we know what sin is [see Romans 6-7], thereby knowing what we need to overcome and change about ourselves to be conformed to the image of the perfect Son. Many times, if not most times, when I reference the Torah, I AM referring to the whole Bible. The issue is that many, many who say they believe in Yeshua [Yeshua] do NOT think the Torah [Genesis-Deuteronomy] is applicable to their lives today. But, when Paul wrote the church at Ephesus, the city that eventually established the “deity” of Mary, [which is error], he wrote that our gospel is FOUNDED on the Apostles [new testament] AND the Prophets [old testament] [ Eph 2:19-22] [ Moses is THE PROPHET in the Jewish mind; Paul is a Jew; Moses penned the Torah], with Messiah Yeshua as the cornerstone:

Had Ephesus clung to that model, perhaps they never would have deified Mary? The unity of the godhead and the unity of scripture is what is missing in believers today. Believers who try to study usually study only the New Testament, and that through preconceptions and assumptions based on human tradition. Many protestants do not realize how truly catholic they still are! We are fully persuaded that these are the “great harlot” and her “harlot daughters” of the Revelation, the “believers” whom יהוה tells us, “Come out of her, my people”.

In an email response to this question came this statement:

“the idea of Torah abandonment is a huge one of these” [errors];

This is speaking specifically of Torah, the “Law of Moses”. Abandoning it has caused all the confusion in the circle of those who want to follow Yeshua.

So, in the email in question, all of the references to Torah were specific to the law of Moses; the point is that many think that the letter to the Galatian cities gives instruction to abandon everything in regard to the Torah, the “law of Moses”. This flies in the face of the words of Yeshua Himself:

“Think not that I am come to destroy the law [Torah], or the prophets [Joshua-Malakhi]: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfill. For verily I say unto you, Till heaven and earth pass, one jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the Torah, till all be fulfilled.

Whosoever therefore shall break one of these least commandments [of the Torah], and shall teach men so, he shall be called the least in the kingdom of heaven: but whosoever shall do and teach them, the same shall be called great in the kingdom of heaven.” Matt 5:17-19

Paul supports this as well:

“Do we then make void the law through faith? G-D FORBID! Yea! We ESTABLISH IT”. Rom 3:31

Long answer, I know, but important, and a very good question. In talking about Torah sometimes the statements are about “the first five books of the Bible”…but, in the broader context of my usage of the word, the Torah is seen as the whole Bible. In the Jewish mind, one can refer to Tanakh as the Torah, the whole “old testament”. For believers in Yeshua, one can carry that to represent the whole Bible. Let us not forget that the new covenant promise is that the TORAH would be written on our hearts:

Jeremiah 31:33 
“This is the covenant I will make with the house of Israel after that time,” declares יהוה. “I will put my TORAH in their minds and write it on their hearts. I will be their God, and they will be my people.
Hebrews 8:10 
This is the covenant I will make with the house of Israel after that time, declares the Lord. I will put my TORAH in their minds and write it on their hearts. I will be their God, and they will be my people.
Hebrews 10:16 
“This is the covenant I will make with them after that time, says the Lord. I will put my Torah in their hearts, and I will it them on their minds.”

Sha’ul is reminding the Jews of that very promise, twice! In showing them how the priesthood had been transformed by the Messiah; the key here is that he was “keeping” the relevance of Torah…

Torah DOES equal Bible, because it is the part of the foundation we can actually “see” with our eyes; Messiah is the cornerstone, and we can “trust” in Him, but have not seen Him yet; We soon will, and He will judge the earth according to Torah.


This is Deuteronomy 4:2, a very, very important command:

“Do not add to the word I command you, neither shall you ‘take away’, to keep the commandments of יהוה your G-D which I command you.”

The two most important concepts in this command are the words “Lo tigru mimenu”, and “Lishmar”.

Lo tigru comes from the word “gara”, which means “withdraw”, but also means “to destroy”, in the sense of “shaving”, razing… . The most “simple” meaning of it, when coupled with “mi”, as it is here [mimenu, the word after tigru], is “take away”.

“Lishmar” means “to guard”. This is not addressing their “keeping” them in the sense of obeying the commands; Moses takes care of that in verse 5 and 6, where he instructs, “la’asot” , “to do” them. This “lishmar” means to ‘keep’ in the sense of “preserving”. A literal rendering of lo tigru mimenu lishmar et mitzvoth יהוה” would be “do not take away from us, [but] preserve the commandments of יהוה”.

When Yeshua said in Matt 5:18-19, “I did not come to “do away with” the Torah, but to fulfill”, He was ASSURING His JEWISH audience that He was and always would be a supporter of Torah. He was assuring the Jewish community that He would not break this very important command in Deuteronomy 4.

The “riddle” that the English translations of Galatians cause is quelled in this command, and in Yeshua’s PROMISE that He would not break this command! Remember, Galatians is about preventing the making Jews out of Gentiles by compulsion, or “bondage”, NOT about keeping commands.

Consider this:

“Bear in mind that our L-rd’s patience means salvation, just as our dear brother Paul also wrote you with the wisdom that G-D gave him. 16He writes the same way in all his letters, speaking in them of these matters. His letters contain some things that are hard to understand, which ignorant and unstable people distort, as they do the other Scriptures, to their own destruction.” II Peter 3:15-16

Paul NEVER intended to overturn the Torah of G-D, nor Shabbat, nor Kosher laws…

”Do we then make void [ tigru] the Torah through faith? G-D FORBID! Yea, we ESTABLISH it [Torah]! Rom 3:31.

Paul’s intent was to STOP “Judaizers” from forcing Gentiles to BECOME JEWS in order to be saved,, which is what “judaizer” means! This was done by the Pharisaic house of Shammai even before Yeshua! [check history] This event is born out in detail in Acts 13-15…Consider these chapters BEFORE making a judgment about what Paul is writing in Galatians. Paul was part of the settling of the argument over Judaizers; It was settled in Jerusalem, and the “conclusion of the matter” was that the gentiles would continue to hear Torah every Shabbat, and that they should at a minimum keep a partial kosher diet while they learn their new faith: no foods sacrificed to Idols [Indian and Chinese food is], no meat with blood in it, no “strangled meat”, which means limbs wrested from living animals; and, they dumped the WHOLE code of sexual laws from the Torah on them! Is that really doing away with Torah? Doesn’t sound like it to me. It is a doing away with men FORCING others to be CIRCUMCISED, which, historically, has always been associated with Shammai’s rule that gentiles FULLY CONVERT in order to worship in the Synagogue with Jews. It was an on-going debate for many years before Paul converted. Paul was not of the House of Shammai, but of Hillel. Hillel taught that Jews COULD worship in the synagogue if they kept the No’akhide laws of Genesis 9. That’s what we see happening in Acts 13-14…Gentiles who were already worshiping יהוה with Hillel’s blessing [the school/house of Hillel was most respected by the Pharisees]. The House of Shammai was in control of the Sanhedrin. That’s who Paul was talking about when he said “am I trying to please men, or G-D?” Shammai’s “men” were forcing a man-made rule on Gentiles. The “minimum” of Hillel was reaffirmed by James in Acts 15….

It is important to note that nothing in the New Testament forbids anyone from keeping Sabbath or keeping kosher…Jew or Gentile!

Chapter 3 of Galatians:

First, recognize that Paul affirms SCRIPTURE first, the truth of the written word, which in his day was ONLY Moses to Malakhi!

Next, verse 2 asks “was it WORKS of law or spirit you received”.
Notice how most minds immediately focus on “law”, and not “works”. In this sentence the main noun is WORKS, with the “of law” as a MODIFIER. This is proven out in verse 3, which says, “commencing in Spirit, are you now completed in FLESH?” WORKS or “deeds” are of the FLESH! The LAW is SPIRIT!

See Romans 7:14~!

He goes on to explain that the Spirit indeed came by faith…just as righteousness came to Abraham by faith…then he says that those who believe “these are the SONS OF ABRAHAM”. And Abraham “kept the commandments, statutes, and laws” of G-D, BEFORE THEY WERE WRITTEN [Genesis 26]. He did so by faith, as do we.

He explains that we are brought into Abraham’s blessings because of Faith in the WRITTEN WORD, the TORAH [remember verse 1 of chapter 3?] He says as many as are of WORKS, [of the law is again the modifier in verse 10] are UNDER THE curse: the curse of what? The CURSE of breaking the Torah…Yeshua has set those who believe in His Law free from the curses contained in it. He goes on and explains that the Spirit comes through the promise made, to Abraham, through Yeshua, to us.

Next, why did the law come? [v 19] “to favor transgressions until the Seed should come, set in order by messengers in the hand of a Mediator [Moses].” [my translation] Stern translates it this way: “It was added in order to CREATE transgressions, until the coming of the seed about whom the promise had been made”.

“Is the law against the promises of G-D?” “HEAVEN FORBID!!”

Then he explains that the scriptures confine ALL [JEW AND GENTILE] under sin, until the MEDIATOR Yeshua should come. Then Sha’ul says that the promise would come to those “guarded by the Torah” so that the promise would take away UNBELIEF. [unbelief of the scriptures, verse 1, the belief in יהוה and His Law, which Messiah came to establish! Matt 5:18-19, and through that, belief in Yeshua. Remember, Yeshua expounded all the LAW and the PROPHETS to teach them about HIMSELF. [Luke 24].

In verse 24 says that the law HAS BECOME OUR INSTRUCTOR! [check a good Greek bible] up to Messiah, teaching us to be justified by faith! Verses 28-29 say that Jew and Gentile have become one; and, if you are Messiah’s, then YOU ARE THE SEED OF ABRAHAM, a Torah keeper! And heirs: inheriting WHAT?: the promise written IN THE TORAH.

This letter was in response to Paul’s hearing about the Judaizers, who were NOT sent by James, the leader of the Church at Jerusalem; they took it upon themselves to assert that Gentiles must convert by taking the sign of circumcision IN THEIR FLESH in order to enter the Olam Haba…”be saved”. This is not what keeping the commandments is about. Keeping the commandments, observing them, is about obeying the Word, by faith. This is seen in 4:16, “they are zealous for you, but not for well, but they want to exclude you so that you should be zealous for them… ”
The proof that this is the Judaizers demanding circumcision comes in 5:2: “Behold I say to you that should you be circumcised”, and says that they should not “put their faith in circumcision” to save them. [vs 4] Verse 11 further supports that this is the Judaizer argument.

Now, look at how Paul expresses this same argument to the Ephesians:

“Therefore, remember that formerly you who are Gentiles by birth and called “uncircumcised” by those who call themselves “the circumcision” (that done in the body by the hands of men)— remember that at that time you were separate from Messiah, excluded from citizenship in Israel and foreigners to the covenants of the promise, without hope and without G-D in the world. But now in Christ Yeshua you who once were far away have been brought near through the blood of Christ. For he himself is our peace, “having made both one [Jew and Gentile], and [the partition of barrier having loosed] the enmity by the flesh of the law of commandments in decrees he cleared away],.

Stern puts it this way:: “has broken down the m’khitzah which divided us by destroying in his own body the ENMITY occasioned by the Torah” [emphasis mine].

[the focal point of that sentence is the enmity, the “curse”, NOT the law!]

His purpose was to create in himself one new man out of the two, thus making peace, and in this one body to reconcile both of them to G-D through the cross, by which he put to death the ENMITY. He came and preached peace to you who were far away and peace to those who were near. For through him we both have access to the Father by one Spirit. Consequently, you are no longer foreigners and aliens, but fellow citizens with G-D’s people and members of G-D’s household, built on the foundation of the apostles [new testament] and prophets [old testament], [the covenants mentioned in previous verse] with Messiah Yeshua himself as the chief cornerstone. In him the whole building is joined together and rises to become a holy temple in the L-rd. And in him you too are being built together to become a dwelling in which G-D lives by his Spirit.”

Perhaps Paul worded it more easily here, because of what Peter wrote?

In short, Galatians is a very difficult book; the first English translators, and most subsequent translators, have approached the Greek with a PRECONCEPTION that the Torah is DEAD! They ALREADY believe that; to those translators, there’s no digging to be done. But, a faithfulness to the language, and to the REST OF SCRIPTURE, not the least of which is the words of Messiah Yeshua Himself, warrants a second look at the book. It was NOT a “Get rid of the Torah” treatise. It was a “Prevent Judaizing” treatise. Nothing further.

If it is more than that, then rip Genesis through Deuteronomy, even through Malakhi, out of your Bible. You don’t need it.

Morning Star / Day Star

Let’s first look at the scriptures that are the cause of this slight confusion:

Star From Jacob – from Numbers, 24.
This is Balaam’s prophecy about Messiah.

Lucifer [light bearer] Son of the Dawn
From Isaiah 14

Star falling from heaven – Rev 9:1

The dawn and the light of day arise in your hearts – 2 Peter 1:19

I will give him the Star of the Dawn – Rev 2:28

Consider, Satan is “Sheker HaMashiakh”, a ‘false anointed’, or anointed for lies. His ‘star’ is always a ‘descending’ star, whereas Messiah’s is referenced as ‘rising’.

A “kokhav” is a star.

The first text above says ‘kokhav mi Ya’akov’, a star ‘from’ Jacob, a clear reference to Messiah.

The second text does not say kokhav: It says, “fallen [or falling] light-bearer of the dawn”, and is a clear reference to HaSatan. This matches the next one, which does say Kokhakh Naphal, or FALLING STAR.

The next text, from 2 Pet, says, “The dawn [shakhar] and the light of The Day [Ore HaYom] arise in your heart” – note the ‘upward mobility’.

The next says “I will give him the Star [Kokhav] of The Dawn [HaShakhar] [a ‘rising star’, the sun, in metaphor = Yeshua, the “Sun of Righteousness with Healing in His Tallit”.]

Next, Ore Nogah v’Kokhav HaShakhar – “Shining Light and Star of the Dawn”. As you can see, these are not the exact same phrases, and are clearly opposite ‘images’ of Messiah and Anti-Messiah…

I have not studied this on the deeper levels, but this should get you started in ‘sorting out’ the seeming sameness of the phrase…


At our recent study of the first chapter of scripture, “B’Reshit”, and the first few verses of the second chapter, we see the first appearance of the NAME, and can gain some initial understanding about it. In these passages, we see Elohim creating the earth and all that is therein, and then, when He details for us ‘how’ He created Man, interacting with “Adahm”, He refers to Himself as יהוה Elohim. This comes across into English as “G-D” doing the creating, and the “L-RD G-D” interacting with Adahm. Elohim relates or reveals Himself to man as יהוה .

So, the very first use of the NAME in scripture is in Genesis 2:4.

In our Hebrew classes on Shabbat, the subject of “vowels” can be difficult to conquer, but only because we make it so! The question arises, or statements are incorrectly made, “there are no ‘vowels’ in Hebrew”/ “are there vowels in Hebrew?”. OF COURSE there are! They are just not written! The vowels are the “spirit” of the Torah! The consonants “carry” or are “covered” by the vowels! You can’t see the vowels unless you “know” the consonants, but you can hear them, if you SHEMA! “LISTEN/HEAR”! [ In Jewish thought, the spaces or “shapes” in-between the letters are other letters! ] If there were no vowels in Hebrew, then when it is spoken, one would only ‘hear’ clicking of teeth and bumping of gums! So, the statement “There are no vowels in Hebrew” is a misrepresentation of the language. The vowels of Hebrew are “intuitive”, as all humans are, and most humans used to be far more intuitive than we are now, especially men! A better word to describe this, however, is that the vowels are SPIRITUAL. Again, they are the “Spirit” of the Torah. They are most indeed there! Eventually, one “sees” them, after having heard them and acted upon them, and understanding them. They are more important, in one sense, than the consonants that are written! Though they cannot be ‘carried’ unless the consonants are there! The consonants carry different vowel sounds depending on the meaning that the word/thought they’re in is trying to convey. Just like there is one Spirit but many “powers/gifts”, and one person can ‘carry’ one or more ‘gifts’ of the Spirit at various times and functions in the Body, so each consonant can ‘carry’ a different vowel sound, in order to do the work of Elohim of communicating meaning to us. This is also seen in the Menorah of the Ruakh, in Isaiah 11:1-4, where the five main gifts of the Ruakh are ‘book-ended’ by יהוה and the FEAR of יהוה . The five ‘powers’ in the middle and the Ruakh יהוה and the Yirat יהוה all rest on one man: Messiah! The Menorah of the World. In truth, in a subtle way, all the vowel “sounds” are represented in the NAME!

It is true, however, that vowel ‘sounds’ are not ‘written’. There are no individual printed letters that exclusively represent the five ‘vowel sounds’ of the Hebrew language. This is true of the text of the scriptures themselves. What do I mean? Any man, any natural man, can pick up the scriptures and read them. But, it is only when yielded to G-D and HIS SPIRIT that one can “Shema”, which means, if you’ll remember, “HEAR AND DO!”. This is an even stronger principle when one is reading the scriptures in Hebrew and Aramaic, because of the need to ‘understand’ the vowels.

There are only five ‘vowel sounds’ in Hebrew, represented by the English phonetics below:

AH – as in BACH / EH – as in bet / EE – as in feet / OH – as in oat / OO – as in boot

Other sounds that one ‘thinks’ one hears when listening to Hebrew are called “dipthongs”, or blends of the five sounds above. This ‘hints’ at the five books of the Torah, and the Prophets! The prophets only use TORAH in their rulings, linking Torah precept to Torah precept! As do the Apostles! An example of the blends is in the word “Adonai”, which means “My Master”. The first syllable is AH, as the first sound listed above. The second syllable is DON, which combines the consonantal “D” with the “OH of oat” and the consonantal “N”, and the last syllable is “AI”, which is a “diphthong” or “blend” of AH and EE. It sounds like our “long I “, but in reality is the blending of AH and EE.

So, when we get to the word יהוה in Hebrew, we ‘understand’ that it is not an ’empty’ word, but “full”. One has to consider what Yeshua said when determining how to say it. “Elohim Ruakh”, or “G-D is SPIRIT!” So, every syllable in this word must be “open”, not “closed” by hard consonantal sounds! Because nothing can “stop” wind, or Ruakh [Breath/spirit]. Here is a ‘picture’ of the Hebrew representation of the NAME:

Remember, we read from right to left!

The first letter is a unique “consonant” which serves as a vowel sound at times. Its name is Yod, and means ‘hand’. It is “open”. Most of the time it represents the sound “ee”, which can turn into our understanding of the consonantal sound of our letter “Y”. But, let’s go slow. Let’s say only “ee” for now.

The second letter is a “heh”, and actually means “BEHOLD!” and also means “SPIRIT!”. It is an “open consonant” as well. In this word, it carries a ‘vowel sound’, AH.

The third letter, the “vav”, functions as a vowel carrier as well! It means “hook”. It’s sound, when positioned within a word, is often “OO”, as in this case. [we will prove that later]

The last letter is a repeat, “AH”.

Each of these letters are “servants” to the vowel sounds in the NAME! They simply “carry” them. They yield to the “spirit”, if you will! Each of them is “open”, so as not to ‘stop’ the flow of the ‘breath’.

So, lets blend these sounds together: EE-AH-OO-AH. A diphthong naturally occurs, which makes us English speakers think of “Y”. Say it faster. The EE and AH become “Yah”, a blend. The rules of transliteration for the Hebrew-to-English give us the word we know as “יהוה”.

So, why did the “vowel marks” come into play, and how?

There was a community of Jews in the sixth/seventh century that saw the need to create a system with which to teach Jews who no longer spoke Hebrew on a daily basis, who were scattered in the diaspora, how to read the scriptures. They themselves DID STILL SPEAK HEBREW. They were a community of Jews IN JERUSALEM, doing a service for Israel, the language, and the Tanakh. Their name “Masorete”, means ‘tradition keeper’, as they had rejected Rabbinic Judaism and believed in a purer Torah Walk. They still exist today, and have had a continuous presence in Jerusalem and Iraq since just after the time of Messiah. They created what we call “niqudot” or “dots”. These dots and dashes make up a diacritical system of indicators that tell us what “vowel sound” a consonant is “carrying”. They themselves, remember, had been reading Torah WITHOUT THEM for generations! But they were ‘compelled’ to preserve the language with these ‘niqudot’. From them we get our understanding of Hebrew pronunciation. I find it very interesting that Ya’akov’s sheep and goats all had niqudot!

Hebrew has been read/spoken in Synagogues CONTINUOUSLY for the last 2400 years. There is very little variation, even when one moves from place to place around the globe, especially where vowel sounds are concerned! The only real variation that developed over the centuries is that in the German/Chech/Polish “Ashkenazi” communities they changed the “tav” to use the “s” sound of “samekh”, and the khaph (soft kaph) to use the ‘k/q’ sound of qoph, probably due to local influence of Slavic languages. But they did NOT modify VOWEL SOUNDS!

So, why is there so much ‘debate’ over the pronunciation of the NAME?

In the Jewish community, particularly in the sect of the Pharisees, the ruling house in the time of Messiah, there was a trend toward NOT saying the NAME, even though the scriptures command us to say it! To DECLARE IT AMONG THE GENTILES! But, in examining the scriptures closely, especially our Aramaic texts, we see that Yeshua said this NAME often, as did the disciples. So, in His day, the pronunciation had NOT been ‘forgotten’. The proof also is that the Mishnah, written down AFTER Messiah, tells us that the High Priest would say the NAME on Yom Kippur in the Kadosh K’doshim.

The Masoretic community, however, though returning to Torah, preserved the man-made tradition of not pronouncing the name when reading the Torah/Tanakh. So, when they assigned the niqudot to the consonants of the NAME, they did not assign the right ones! They assigned the ‘sounds’ of Adonai and Elohim to the letters of יהוה !

And in some of the places where they assigned niqudot to יהוה , they assigned the vowel sounds for ELOHIM:

Elohim in Hebrew

So, Masorete readers would ‘see’ the two variations when reading aloud, but would ‘say’ either Adonai or Elohim in place of THE NAME! In doing so, they were no longer keeping the command to declare the NAME.

As a result, later “scholars” who did not SPEAK Hebrew saw these vowel points and created a combination of sounds, using Latin replacement consonants, and gave us the faulty transliteration, “Jehovah”. The first syllable should tell us “STOP!”, and certainly so should the third!

So, how do we know what TO say, when we see this name? We look at other forms/uses of the name!

Many Biblical names make use of the NAME. We will look at two, which are the most compelling. The first one we will look at is Isaiah. This name contains a joining of two words.

Yesha Yahu (Isaiah) in Hebrew

The word is pronounced in Hebrew, “Yesha-Yahu”. I have broken it up into its two cognate parts above. Starting on the right, the first two syllables are “Yesha”, the second two syllables are Yahu. Together these words mean “יהוה Saved” [You should notice how similar the first part is to Yeshua].

We will focus on the second cognate, Yahu. What letter is missing, when we compare it to the NAME? Only the last “heh”. Here, we basically see three of the five ‘vowels’: EE, AH, and OO. When we ‘say’ them in the timbre and cadence of normal speech, it comes out “YaOO”, with a very simple ‘wind’ from the Heh. Yahu.

This word, Yeshayahu, has been echoed through the ages, and its pronunciation is rarely debated, if ever, among Jews! This same suffix is on the back of “Eliyahu” and Yirmiyahu”, two other major prophets, whose names mean “My G-D is יהוה ” and “Appointed by יהוה ”. The current Prime Minister of Israel also shares this cognate: Benyamin NetanYahu, whose last name means “Gift of יהוה”.

Now, lets look at one more.

See how similar this name is to יהוה ?

It only has ONE other letter in it, a “closed door”, the Dalet, the red letter [the word Dalet, the name of that red letter, means “door”, and it is a ‘closed’ letter. The Heh, the second and last letter, is actually an “open door”]. This word is YehuDah, with the stress on the last syllable. You know it as Judah. This word means “praised”, coming from the concept of “throwing” or “casting”, and its root is a homonym of “yadah” or “known”. This is the patriarch of the Messianic Tribe, and is the word from which we get our English word “JEW”. The Jews CERTAINLY know how to pronounce this word! Consider, “Judah” has “closed the door” on SPEAKING THE NAME! When they repent of this infraction, and of their other changes to Torah, then Messiah will come! Now, look at how very, very similar Yehuda is to יהוה ! Take the “door” out, and you’re ‘seeing’ and ‘hearing’ His NAME. Yeshua, we know, IS the door. When He changed from mortal to “immortal”, He OPENED the door!

“I will declare THY NAME among my brethren! In the midst of the Congregation I will sing praise unto thee! Ye that fear יהוה , PRAISE HIM!” [Heb 2:12, and Psalm 22:23]. Sha’ul attributes these words to Yeshua! In the previous verse in the Psalm, the speaker asks “save me from the Lion’s mouth!” The lion is Judah! His mouth is closed, NOT declaring the NAME!

יהוה   said this about His Name to the Jews: 
“B’khal hamakom asher EHZKIR et SHMI avoh eleykha ooverakhtikha”. 
Meaning, “In EVERY place where my NAME is REMEMBERED I will come to YOU and I will BLESS YOU!”

To “remember” in Hebrew also means “to mention”, or “recall”.

Israel has often done what “Christianity” has done, and forgotten, even forced the omission of the NAME in worship, and especially in daily life. יהוה says that this will be remedied, for everyone, in the future:

Jer 16:21 
Therefore, behold, I will this once cause them to know, I will cause them to know mine hand and my might; and they shall know that my name is   יהוה  .

Jeremiah then reminds Israel of what they did once more:

Jer 23:27 
Which think to cause my people to FORGET MY NAME by their dreams which they tell every man to his neighbour, as their fathers have forgotten my name for Baal.

What most religious “scholars” fail to teach the “laity” is that the word for BAAL in English is L-RD! The equivalent Greek word for BAAL is KURIOS, a title given to many, many of the Greek gods, including Zeus. Constantine assigned this title to Yeshua, and now everyone calls him “L-rd”, and not יהוה . Further, the name “Yeshua” has nothing in it to tell us that “ יהוה is Salvation”, which is exactly what the word Yeshua does.

But, when Messiah came, He caused Israel to declare the Name יהוה into all the earth, in the name of Yeshua. The Apostles, including Sha’ul, all went out into the world and SPOKE HIS NAME, the Name of יהוה , and told them His Messiah’s name is Yeshua.

Mal 1:11 
For from the rising of the sun even unto the going down of the same my name shall be great among the Gentiles; and in every place incense shall be offered unto my NAME, and a pure offering: for my NAME shall be great among the heathen, saith יהוה Tzeva’ot.

Acts 2:14-17, 21 
Then Kefa stood up with the Eleven and raised his voice to address them: “You Judeans, and all of you staying here in Yerushalayim! Let me tell you what this means! Listen carefully to me! “These people aren’t drunk, as you suppose – it’s only nine in the morning. No, this is what was spoken about through the prophet Yo’el: יהוה says: “In the Last Days, I will pour out from my Spirit upon everyone”…. And then, whoever calls on the name of יהוה will be saved.”

Acts 2:35 – 36 
 יהוה said to my master, ‘Sit at my right hand until I make your enemies a footstool for your feet.’ Therefore, let the whole house of Isra’el know beyond doubt that Elohim has made him both יהוה and Messiah – this Yeshua”.

And in Malakhi, a prophecy is made about the “Sun” arising, which Peter tells us is also at a FUTURE date from our day. This ‘promise’ is given to those that fear the NAME of יהוה . The previous verse tells us that it is יהוה speaking in this verse:

Mal 4:2 
But unto you that fear my name shall the Sun of righteousness arise with healing in his wings; and ye shall go forth, and grow up as calves of the stall.

Yeshua IS יהוה , The WORD of Elohim manifested in flesh! The LION of the tribe of YehuDAH. The pronunciation of this name, YehuDah, has the ‘blends’ of the name יהוה in it, so it is very easy to ‘see’ that the NAME is pronounced, in timbre and cadence, as EE-AH-OO-AH. I-A-U-A, four vowels. Thus, the early transliterations that offer us “ יהוה ” in English, following the rules that are established linguistically for transliterating between these two languages DIRECTLY, instead of through the Greek or Latin, give us accurately the ENGLISH word Yahweh.

His NAME has NOT been lost!

Please read our file, “The Name ,” for more background on this Great Name.

Now, lets briefly discuss the name Yeshua, which means salvation, and is a common, common word in Hebrew scripture, whose pronunciation is obvious. But this pronunciation is further supported as a NAME in the ARAMAIC scriptures, which are more reliable than the Greek and Latin. In Aramaic, the word Yeshua sounds EXACTLY like the Hebrew word yeshua [salvation]. But, in Aramaic, it’s meaning is more full. It means “ יהוה is Salvation”. This is also the meaning of the word Yehoshua. Why not YeHUshua? BECAUSE IT IS AT THE FRONT OF THE WORD as a prefix cognate. But, remember, in Yehuda, it is neither a prefix nor a suffix!

In the Aramaic scriptures, this is quite obviously Yeshua’s name. The Aramaic community in the near east has been using and saying this word for 2700 years! With no loss of continuity! If we were really wanting a proper English word for the name of the Savior, the Son of G-D, it is JOSHUA. This form takes the name Yehoshua out of Hebrew DIRECTLY into English. The word “Yeshua” comes to us from Hebrew, through the Greek, as Iesous. It is further massaged into English using GREEK-to-English transliteration rules, giving us a totally different sounding word from Joshua.

However! The ‘ayin’ on the end of Yehoshua is translated EVERYWHERE ELSE in Hebrew to Greek rules as an ‘open ending syllable’, so, the Greek “sigma” on the end of this word SHOULD NOT BE THERE! This is why many postulate that “Yeshua” is a cognate of “hail” and “Zeus”. It is indeed a compelling argument for the unlearned. They assert that the  or “ee-eh”, means “hail”, and the  or ‘sous’ means Zeus. But, there are two different letters in Zeus in the Greek:  The Zeta and the epsilon.

It is certain that our catholic forebears had an affinity for Greek gods, so it does leave one to question their motive for ignoring the standard rules of transliteration in the case of this ONE word. The last sigma should NOT have been there, and all ‘scholars’ know this. It is simply ‘overlooked’; or is it?

There are indeed many protestants who would cringe at the thought of calling “Yeshua” zeus. These are the ones who ACCEPT HIS JEWISHNESS! And they are few and far between. These are the ones to whom יהוה is calling, and compelling them to learn the truth about pagan ritual laced throughout ‘Christian’ practice. Their love for the Son of G-D will eventually drive them to His proper name, and His Torah. For now, they are covered by grace, indeed, unless upon hearing the truth they ignore it and prove false about adhering to scripture and truth.

So, when we say “Yeshua”, we are using a very common Hebrew word AND a very common Aramaic word, over which there is no debate in pronunciation. Some Messianics who are making controversy out of its pronunciation are doing so in ignorance, or because they are not truly “Messianic”, but are part of cultic behavior and elitist theology. That is NOT us.

Please read our file, You Shall Call His Name Yeshua ” for more background on the Messiah’s Name.

The use of the Name יהוה in speech should be treated with great care, in great fear and reverence of the third commandment. DO NOT take the name of יהוה in vain. In other words, do not use it in “empty” context or common conversation, or to curse someone. In these settings of speech, we use “Abba”, or “Yah”, or “HaShem”, or “Adonai”. Yeshua and the Apostles teach us to call Him “Abba”, which means ‘daddy’, or “Avinu”, which means ‘Our Father’. Personally, I rarely use “L-RD” anymore, because it equates to Baal, and is a human term for one of the most prolific idols of antiquity. That’s just me.

I certainly hope this helps clear up any clouds that might have been lingering!

Read more:  What is in a Name? 

For an interesting 3rd party perspective on the early use of The Name check out:  The Use of the Name (YHWH) by Early Christians 


“I am the root and the offspring of David, the bright morning STAR.” ~Yeshua~Revelation 22:16″I see him, but not now; I behold him, but not near. A STAR will come out of Ya’akov; a scepter will rise out of Israel.” Numbers 24:17

“We saw His Star in the east, and have come to worship HIM”. Matt 2:2

“I am the Rose of Sharon, the Lily of the Valleys” ~Song of Solomon 2:1

Many people ask us about the asserted occultic origins of the Magen [Shield of] David, or Star of David, and whether or not a Messianic Jew should wear one. There are indeed many cultures that use the symbol in their symbology, but HaSatan is notorius for robbing symbols from Elohim and making them into items of worship or symbols of things occult. The most recent theft of something sacred made into something perverse is the use of the rainbow, a symbol Elohim used to promise mankind that he would never again destroy us by water. Recently, a ‘cult’ has arisen that uses that symbol to represent their evil practices, yet no believer would call the rainbow itself evil. The same has occurred in the case of the Star of David.

While it is impossible to assert exactly when the Jewish Community adopted the symbol as self identifying, the bottom line is that it has long been used in Judaic culture. The most compelling evidence of its intrinsic Israeli value is the “Lily of the Valley”, and its very early use in Judaic architecture. This flower [seen above], which grows wild in the region of Galilee [in the North/East], where Yeshua was raised, and where much of His ministry took place, was used in the decoration of the sacred Beit HaMikdash [known to most as the temple of Elohim].

“And the capitals that were upon the top of the pillars in the porch were of lily work, four cubits.” I Kings 7:19

“And upon the top of the pillars was lily work; so was the work of the pillars finished”. verse 22

As we do not have the remains of the temple to verify, we must trust the Word. However, the star-shaped lily has been found in a synagogue in Capernaum, Kefa’s [Peter] home town.

Capernaum – straight lined star -4th century C.E., Credit: Gabi Goldman

So the early use of the six-pointed ‘star’ flower is both Biblically and archeologically proven, from earliest times. There is reputed to be a star of David over the head of the Israeli king surrendering to Nebuchadnezzar in an ancient relief owned by the British Museum, but we have not been able to locate that. Nonetheless, the symbol carries early significance to Jews.

The flower above and right is the flower of the pomegranate. The pomegranate was interlaced with the bells on the bottom of the Robe of the High Priest. It is interesting that the only two flowers mentioned so specifically both open up into the six-pointed star of David.

Also from this same time period [3rd century], there are many Jewish tombstones that bore the emblem, even in Italy, where one was found in Taranto from that time frame. It has also been found on ancient synagogues from that time in the more ‘traditional’ hexagon form we know today.

Later use of the symbol in Jewish culture puts this symbol in direct sacred context. It was used on the cover of a Tanakh [“old testament”, or Jewish Bible], placed there by the Masoretes, a purely Torah Observant Jewish sect, having themselves a distinct aversion to paganism. They would hardly have even thought to use a pagan symbol in any setting, much less put one on the cover of sacred writ. They viewed it as a Biblical symbol for their people. This comes from the year 1008.

Masoretic text, the Leningrad Codex, dated 1008 CE, Source:

Perhaps the most compelling argument, however, is the use of the “flower” on the Menorah! In an ancient Arabic translation of the scripture that describes the Menorah, the word for “flower” is actually translated as “lily”. Given that the lily was the flower used on the pillar, it is not difficult to consider the possibility of its use on the Menorah. There indeed was a flower under the bowl on the top of each of the seven branches of the menorah.

“You shall make a Menorah of pure gold, beaten out shall the Menorah be made, its base, its branch, its goblets, its knobs, and its flowers shall be hammered from it”. Exodus 25:31 see also vs. 33

In this configuration, the light would burn from the middle of the “star” flower, and would likely cast a shadow in the shape of the star into the floor of the Beit HaMikdash!

In Israel’s modern history, the father of Zionism, Binyamin Ze’ev Herzl, asked that there be seven Stars of David on the flag of the new nation of Israel. David Ben Gurion, the first Prime Minister, and signer of the declaration of Independence, decided that a single Magen David on the flag would suffice.

This is especially compelling when one considers the description of יהוה concerning the Messiah in the book of Revelation:

“To the messenger of the assembly in Sardis write: These are the words of him who holds the SEVEN SPIRITS OF ELOHIM and the SEVEN STARS“. Revelation 2:26. These are clearly the stars of the Menorah, as the Menorah is described in the fourth chapter as holding the seven Spirits of יהוה .

This is further supported in the Messianic prophecy, which names the Seven Spirits, and tells us that the “Root” and “Branch”, or the Davidic King, Messiah, will bear them. Isaiah 11:2

So, nothing could better symbolize Messiah Yeshua, the Jewish Messiah, the Root of David, the Star from Jacob, the Lily of the Valley, than the Magen David, the Star of Israel, the Jew of Jews. Any pagan accusations are just that: accusations. Since the beginning of the Kahal [congregation] there has been an effort to demonize Jews and accuse them of every dark sin. This is not new. But the symbol of the six pointed star, fashioned after two flowers that are indigenous to Yeshua’s home region in Galilee north/east of Jerusalem, replicated on the Beit HaMikdash and the Menorah, is one of the best symbols to represent Messiah Himself, given that He called Himself the Star of David.

There are those who assert that the “Star of Molekh” mentioned in Ma’asei HaShlikihim chapter 7, [Acts 7:42] is in fact the “Star of David.” The passage reads this way:

“O Sons of Yisra’el, why have you offered me slain creatures or sacrifices during the period of forty years in the wilderness? Indeed you have borne the tabernacle of Molekh and the star of the god Rephan; and you have made images to worship them; therefore I will remove you beyond Babylon.”

First, there is absolutely not one shred of historical evidence that our six-pointed Magen David was marked ANYWHERE on the Tabernacle. Second, this verse is about the wayward heart of Yisra’el, serving other gods while at the same time offering sacrifices to יהוה . The ‘star of Rephan’ is actually the inverted pentagram, and not the Magen David. But, if we set these verses in context, we see two things: first, that TzefanYah follows up and says that it was the TABERNACLE OF  יהוה that was with Yisra’el in the Wilderness! He’s saying that they received HIS TABERNACLE. So, the one they carried in the wilderness is NOT the tabernacle of Molekh, and TzefanYah [Stephen] makes this plain! Next, that TzefanYah is actually quoting several of the prophets. YirmiYahu from 19, and Amoz from 5. This is against a disobedient Yisra’el whose hearts had turned from  יהוה , and began to worship the hosts of heaven, the ‘star’ being spoken of here is NOT the “Magen,”, the “Shield” of “David”, but an ORB in they SKY.

Rephan or Remphan, is the English rendering of the Greek word appearing in Acts 7:43 as Ρομφα, Ρεμφάν, Ρεμφαμ, Ραιφαν, and Ρεφαν . It is part of a quotation from Amoz 5:26 where the Septuagint renders raiphan or rephan in the place of the Hebrew ‘Ki’un’. This is probably the Babylonian “Kayawanu,” the planet Saturn, another name for Sakkut, which appears as Siccuth in the earlier part of the verse in Amoz.

Never in history has Saturn been associated with the Magen David. By the time the Magen David became an accepted symbol of Judaism, Jews had long turned from the idolatry they had been guilty of in the days of YirmiYahu and Amoz. Yes, there are some Jews today who practice Kabbalah and the Occult, but, that is no cause to indict EVERY Jew and all of Judaism of paganism.

“Magen David”, the earliest Jewish definition of its origin, is attributed to the Shield that David carried, that had on it the emblem of His name. The assertion has been that the double “dalet” was used, and overlaid on the back of his wooden shield as a brace. This would be the two ‘triangles’ in the ‘star’ we now see, creating the six points. There is, of course, no way to prove this, but neither is there any way to disprove it. The scriptures speak of the “Shield of Avraham,” and David is the rightful king of the nation that came from his loins. David wrote of  יהוה , calling Him his ‘Shield,’ and his very great reward. THIS is that to which Yisra’el and the Jewish people have attributed the Magen David, attesting to it in its very name! To deny it is to expose the antisemitic spirit that wants to demonize Jews, saying they do not know what their own symbol represents.

For more compelling historical and archaeological evidence, read this blog: Star of David


For more information on this topic, please see or download: Yayin (Wine) PDF)


For more information on this topic, please see or download: Divorce (PDF)


Shalom! There have been a couple of questions of late about Tefillin, otherwise known as ‘phylacteries,’ which are the prayer boxes that are strapped to the arm and the head by Orthodox Jews. New information has come out about them in antiquity, and we need to address this, and then just answer the question for our newer folks who are curious: “Is winding the Tefillin compulsory/”required;” why do we not do that, though we do the Mezuzzah?”

First, I want to re-clarify what our stance is generally on ‘tradition/’custom.’ I will summarize here, but feel free to go to our ‘Customs’ page and refresh your memory.

Some may be misunderstanding my drashes of late: WE DO NOT DESPISE JEWISH  TRADITION.

We oppose ANY tradition that contravenes Torah or prevents the doing of the commandments of Elohim. Yeshua also clearly taught this. The two customs in question herein derive primarily from D’varim 6:4-9 and 11:13-21, and also from Shemot 13:9, where the command was first given, BEFORE THE TORAH WAS EVEN WRITTEN, and before they had permanent homes.

The Mezuzah is a known practice in the time of Messiah, though it took slightly different form over the years, due to practicality [people no longer live in one home their whole life] and persecution [Mezuzot make it easy for anti-Semites to find Jews and kill us, so they became “affixed but removable”]. Regardless of the ‘form’ of the Mezuzah, the command has been clearly practiced by Jews for THOUSANDS of years, way back before the time of Messiah. Further, it does nothing to ‘stand in the way’ of keeping any other command, but in fact encourages the doing of The Word.

The physical ‘Tefillin,’ however, are a different matter. First, we do not ‘forbid’ the practice of winding Tefillin. There is nothing ‘negative’ about them, except this: The Rabbis/Sages of the Talmud teach that it is THE LAW OF ELOHIM. That is why we have not begun that practice. But, there are problems with that much later, Rabbinic conclusion, which I will address shortly. But, one who does wind Tefillin is NOT despised in the congregation; we only ask that they not put the Rabbinic “compulsory” pressure on our members, asserting man’s authority over our Congregants, concerning a much later practice that is NOT seen AT ALL in the Brit Khadashah.

Tefillin are NOT found in antiquity in the time of Messiah, or before. Anywhere. The earliest mention of them in written history is in 159 A.D., long after Messiah had come and gone. One ‘Aristeas’ had written a letter, in it a passage concerning ‘tefillin,’ but ONLY being applied to the hand, and no mention of the headpiece. All the wording used to describe the device was Aramaic, which suggests that Hebrew had begun to die out. The very name of these devices, Tefillin, is Aramaic, meaning they come from the Age of the Talmud, and NOT of scripture. While we support the Aramaic Brit Khadashah scriptures, we do not support Talmud. The Aramaic Brit Khadasha scriptures were written about Yeshua and by OUR teachers, the Shlikhim, eye-witnesses of Yeshua’s death and resurrection. The Talmud was written by the part of the Jewish community that denied Yeshua as the Son of G-D, and executed Him, and remained unrepentant about it. We do not follow them. We mourn for them, as did Sha’ul, and pray they will see Messiah.

The Mishnah does mention Tefillin. But, interestingly, it betrays the LATER, Rabbinic conclusion on their being ‘commanded of G-D.’ In Mishnah “Sanhedrin” 11:3, we read:

חומר בדברי סופרים מדברי תורה. האומר אין תפילין כדי לעבור על דברי תורה פיור. חמשה טוטפות להוסיף על דברי סופרים, חייב

‘Disregard of the enactments of the Scribes is MORE SEVERELY dealt with than disregard of the injunctions of the Torah! If one says, “NOT to wear Tefillin is NOT a transgression of the Torah,” he IS exempt. BUT, if one teaches that [in the Tefillin there are] FIVE partitions, he thus adds to the [words of] the SCRIBES, and IS CULPABLE [guilty].’

Do you see that? Already, in the Mishnah, there was an attempt to give the weight of the words of the Scribes AUTHORITY OVER G-D. They began to make THEIR words MORE IMPORTANT THAN TORAH! And the matter was concerning these little boxes and how they would use them. That is the sin of the Garden all over again, using the idea that man is equal with G-D to force doctrine on others. That is the WHOLE argument of the Rabbinic community AND the Christian community, when you confront them with the plain meaning of scripture.

The history bears out that there was NO SET MEANS of practice concerning these devices in the time the Mishnah was written, as is evident in the passage cited. They were beginning to use the scare-tactic of “We have divine authority” to TRY to force unity in the behavior. Archaeology has born out that there was complete disarray in their early use, too.

The issue likely was the word טוטפות, or Totafot. Totafot has no clear origin, use, or meaning. It gets translated as ‘frontlets.’ Interestingly enough, in Shemot 13, that word was not used, but zikkaron was: “You shall set them [The Word] as a memorial between your eyes.” But, because ‘totafot’ was so obscure by the time of the Talmud, there was debate concerning the NUMBER OF SCROLLS/COMPARTMENTS in the boxes. This issue was STILL hot in Medieval times, when two of the main Rabbis debated it. They did not unify the Jewish community on it, either. Rashi [1040-1105AD] and Rabbenu Tam [1096-1171] had differing opinions on how many scrolls/compartments there should be, and which scriptures should be placed in them. The issue is only ‘settled’ in the different communities: Ashkenazi and Sephardi being the two major Jewish communities. This is also why there are different ways to tie the Tzit-Tziot. But, concerning the Tefillin, there was NO prevailing practice in antiquity.

Archaeologically, the earliest Tefillin found were found at Qumran. But, Qumran was a HUGE community of very pious Jews, having been settled THREE TIMES in antiquity. Relative to the number of scrolls found, the number of sets of Tefillin found is VERY SMALL. And, in that number, there is WIDE VARIETY as to how many compartments there were, and how many scrolls/which scriptures should be put in them. These likely come from the THIRD settlement of Qumran, as the scientific dating of the devices themselves puts their origin in at least the second century. So, though they are the earliest found, they do NOT put Tefillin in practice in the Time of Messiah. Some ‘think’ they were because of the passage in Matti 23:5 in GREEK and greek-sourced, English texts.

“But all their [Scribes and Pharisees] works they do for to be seen of men: they make broad their phylacteries [Tefillin], and enlarge their garments.”

This passage actually betrays the greek texts as coming AFTER the Aramaic Brit Khadashah, because the Aramaic Brit Khadashah texts DO NOT SAY THIS!

“And all their works they do just to be seen by men; for they make grandiose prayers, and they lengthen the tekhelet of their robes” — Mat. 23:5

Where greek says ‘phylacteries,’ a greek word INVENTED to translate “Tefillin,” or Jewish Prayer Boxes, the Aramaic says תפליהון , tiflayhon, which is תפליהם in Hebrew, both meaning “THEIR PRAYERS.” [The ‘tekhelet’ is the blue thread in the tzit-tzit, and making them very long is still a practice among Jews today].

An Aramaic scholar translating from greek to Aramaic, of which there were MANY in the fourth century when the Greeks hi-jacked the faith, and in the sixth when the Greek community insists Aramaic was translated from Greek [which cannot be true], would NOT have translated phylacteries wrong! As an invented greek word to represent an Aramaic word, how COULD they? This is a MISTRANSLATION of “PRAYERS”, תפלין from Aramaic, what was actually תפליהון in the original, to the greek word ‘phylacteries,’ by GREEKS, who knew of the newer practice and mistook the word, a practice/device which was a hotly discussed, unsettled, non-Messianic Jewish practice in the fourth century, still argued about among Jews 700 years later! This is NOT found in the time of Messiah.

So, we conclude that Messiah is seen nowhere doing this. He is our Rabbi, and NO ONE ELSE. We DO NOT CONDEMN the practice of winding Tefillin, as a practice. But, it is NOT compulsory [required] by the Torah, and therefore also not required for our congregation. And, anyone who tries to tell us that it IS required by Elohim is out of line with scripture, and even with Mishnah, which supports that it was the authority of the SCRIBES that require it, and NOT Elohim and His Torah.

So, what is the purpose of the commands in D’varim and Shemot concerning binding and totafot?

I believe Mishlei, Proverbs, shows us, and this is the understanding of 1st century Jews, Messiah included.

Shlomo and others in the Tanak saw these commandments as applying to the conscience guiding the hands and eyes, the behaviors and practices of the person:

“Hear, my son, the instruction [musar] of your father, and forsake not the teaching [Torah] of your mother; For they shall be a chaplet of grace unto your head, and chains [of adornment] about your neck.” Mishlei 1:8-9
“My son, forget not my Torah; but let your heart keep my commandments; Let not kindness and truth forsake you; bind them about your neck, write them upon the table of your heart.” Mishlei 3:1, 3
“My son, keep the commandment of your father, and forsake not the Torah of your mother. Bind them continually upon your heart, tie them about your neck, when you walk, it [The Torah] shall lead you, when you lie down, it shall watch over you; and when you awake, it shall talk with you.” Mishlei 6:20-22
“Keep my commandments and live, and my teaching as the apple of your eye. Bind them upon your fingers, write them upon the table of your heart.” Mishlei 7:2-3 And in D’varim 11, where some of the scrolls of the Tefillin come from, we read: “Therefore shall you lay up these My words in your heart and in your soul; and you shall bind them for a sign upon your hand, and they shall be for frontlets between your eyes.”

All of this shows us that Shlomo had Torah in mind when he thought of the binding and the adorning. And it all shows us that he saw these commandments as alluding to an internal work, that of getting Torah INSIDE you. This is the very promise of the Renewed Covenant in Yirme-Yahu. Yisra’el had failed to do this, so Elohim promised that HE WOULD:

“I will put My Torah in their inward parts, and in their heart will I write it; and I will be their Elohim, and they shall be My people.” Yeshua affirmed this and started the process for us all at Pesakh 2000 years ago: “And He took the cup and gave thanks, and He blessed it and gave it to them, and they all drank of it. And He said to them, “This is my blood of the Renewed Covenant which is shed for the sake of many.”

His writing the Torah on our hearts is THE MOST IMPORTANT thing, and that we KNOW יהוה , and follow our Rabbi Yeshua. If one feels that Tefillin help them in this process, that is a fine thing for that person.  But that one should not try to force it on the Body of Messiah as if the practice was done by Yeshua or required by Elohim before His writing it on our hearts.

For more information on this topic, please see: Customs

The one verse that most people use to assert there is a rapture is in 1 Thess 4:17.   Unfortunately, that is usually the only one they use.   A biblical matter cannot be established without more than one supporting ‘witness,’ and we would have to investigate that to verify whether there is such a thing.   But let’s look at this verse first.

“For this we say to you by the very word of Adoneinu, that we who are alive and are the remnant until the coming of Adoneinu shall not precede those who are dead. For Adoneinu Himself shall descend from heaven with a shout and the voice of the Chief Messenger and with the shofar of Elohim; and those who died in Mashiakh will rise first. Then we who are alive and are the remnant shall be CAUGHT UP together with them in the clouds to meet Adoneinu IN THE AIR; and so shall we ever be with Adoneinu. Therefore, comfort one another with these words.”

There are many who assert that the word, and by extension, the idea of a ‘rapture’ is not in the Bible at all. And they mock as ignorant or foolish those who say that there is a ‘rapture.’

This verse proves those people wrong, immediately and profoundly.

The word here is perhaps best rendered ‘caught up.’  In the Greek texts, this is rendered as “harpazo,” which does mean to ‘quickly snatch away.’

The word here in the LATIN VULGATE is rapturo, which is where people get the English word “rapture” from.  It also means to ‘quickly snatch away.’  The Hebrew word here, from Aramaic, means the same, and it is: “Khataf”.  But we’ll get to the Hebrew later.  Nevertheless, those who deny the existence of a ‘rapture’ are deliberately sticking their heads in the sand, ignoring the SURFACE of, the PLAIN meaning of the text.  This verse is not wrapped in some great vision.  It is Sha’ul speaking very plainly about our future.

So, is ‘rapture’ in the Bible?  Most definitely.  And not only in this verse.

It is also in the Hitgalut, in chapter 12:

“And she brought forth a male child, who was to shepherd all the nations with a rod of iron; and her child was CAUGHT UP to Elohim, and to His throne.”

Now, one thing to understand here, is that this verse is part of a VISION, so we must understand that this is part of something bigger than just one verse.  But, we see here that the ‘child’ is the Shepherd of all nations, which is clearly a reference to Yeshua.

But wait!  THIS verse is in the Hitgalut, and concerning things that take place ‘hereafter,’ according to Yeshua Himself!  [Hit 1:19, write “the things which shall be hereafter”, 4:1-2, “I will show you what must come to pass (in the future)].

Yeshua indeed was ‘caught up’ to heaven, in Acts chapter 1.  But, this was NOT immediately after His physical birth, as is expressed in this vision, and HaSatan was nowhere around threatening His life when he ascended, according to the text in Acts.  His physical life can NO LONGER be threatened, because He is now immortal, resurrected from the dead.  But in this chapter, Hit 12, this is happening in the future, and is a ‘sign’, and part of that sign is a ‘woman’ in the sky, clothed in the sun, with the moon at her feet, giving birth to a son, and a serpent nearby to steal/destroy him [the little child] if he can…….

Most people do not realize that this is telling us a lot: That the ‘child’ is a product of ISRAEL, because this is the SAME vision Yosef had in Genesis concerning himself and his family, the sons of ISRAEL.  There, Yosef saw 11 stars, and they were the stars of his brothers!  Here, we have 12 stars, to include Yosef’s.  All the tribes of Yisra’el.  Giving birth to one son.  Most gentile/western believers struggle with the concept of ONE MAN representing the redeemed of Yisra’el.  That is another topic, indeed, but it is necessary to mention here that Elohim ALWAYS considers ISRAEL as His ‘son’.  [See Shemot 4].  This vision of a woman giving birth, however, happens also to match the constellation configuration that occurs periodically in the fall on Yom Teru’ah, the fifth Mo’ed of G-d.  Virgo sits low in the horizon; the sun is behind her and the moon is at her feet.  A serpent is nearby [another constellation], and JUPITER comes from between her knees, as if ‘she’ is giving birth.  And when that ‘birth’ happens, the little boy is ‘snatched up’/’raptured’ into heaven INTO SAFETY from the serpent. [Jupiter goes into retrograde].

So, here, we learn the PURPOSE of the ‘catching away:’ PROTECTION FROM THE ATTACK OF THE SERPENT.

We also learn the TIMING of it: YOM TERU’AH, the fifth Mo’ed of Elohim, at the beginning of the fall harvest season.  “Harvest”.  This ‘sign’ appears in the heavens precisely on Yom Teru’ah, the first day of the fall season, biblically.

It is fitting to note here that Yeshua came and did a certain portion of his ministry the first time.  We believe He shows us, by His life and ministry, how to interpret prophetic scriptures.  Kefa tells us this about prophecy:

“knowing this first, that not every prophetic writing is made clear in its own book.” Kefa Bet 1:20.

So, how do we know ‘how’ to interpret Nevu’ah, “prophecy”?

Yeshua gives us a big hint, when he stands in His synagogue in His hometown to read from Yesha-Yahu, because it was His turn to read:

He starts reading in Yesha-Yahu 61:

“The Ru’akh of Adonai יהוה is upon me; because of this He has anointed me to preach HaB’sorah to the poor; and He has sent me to heal the brokenhearted, and to proclaim release to the captives and sight to the blind; to strengthen with forgiveness those who are oppressed, and to preach the acceptable year of  יהוה .”

Here, Yeshua breaks a verse in half, stopping in mid-sentence, not reading the following phrase:

“and the day of vengeance of Eloheinu [our God]”.

Through much study, one can recognize that this is the setting of the model for interpreting the prophetic nature of the seven feasts .

The first four feasts represent the first part of these Yesha-Yahu verses, where good news [b’sorah] is declared to the humble, people are healed, people’s eyes are opened to this ‘B’sorah’, they are set free from their sin and oppression, all done by the Anointed Messiah.

Pesakh, when Yeshua was arrested and executed, after having done all of the above.

Matzot, when Yeshua, who was now dead, was buried.

Reishit Omer, [firstfruits], when Yeshua rose from the dead

Shavu’ot, when Yeshua sent His Ru’akh to us, after having ascended [with witnesses seeing His ascent] to stand at the Right Hand of the Father.

Since then, Yeshua has been gone, but His anointed ministry has continued.

The phrase that He read at His Synagogue, He broke deliberately, and what He read that day, He’s been doing ever since…

What happens when He returns?

The Day of the Vengeance of Eloheinu!

Yom Teru’ah is the very next ‘Mo’ed’ [appointed time] of יהוה  after Shavu’ot, when we read in VaYikra [Lev] 23.  It is known as “Yom HaDin,” the Day of Judgment.  It is a mysterious day that is not explained at all in VaYikra, or anywhere else.  It is a “Sod.”  A Bible ‘mystery’.  It is the day the Khodesh [renewed crescent moon] is sighted, and the Shofar is blasted amidst great SHOUTING.  It is the day the wicked are punished, giving them a chance to do teshuva before they are judged.  Everyone on earth at that point, during the seven year “Et Ketz”, “Tzara” [tribulation], is forced to make a decision: follow Elohim and His Messiah, or follow HaSatan, the false Messiah.  This is the GREAT deception that Elohim will FORCE on mankind.   On the yearly calendar of the feasts, this day is followed immediately by seven “Terrible Days”, when the Kohen Gadol goes into an inner room WITH HIS BRIDE, and a spare bride waiting in the wings, to prepare for Yom Kippur, the Day of Atonement, the Great Shofar.  Yom Kippur is followed by Sukkot, seven days and an eighth, when all the world comes to ‘Dwell in booths’ in Jerusalem.  Details on all of this will come later.  It is pointed out here to show the BREAK in the feasts we’ve had for 2,000 years.  The NEXT thing on the prophetic agenda is Yom Teru’ah!  This ‘break’ is why Yeshua stopped reading in mid-verse.

So, as stated before, we learn the TIMING of a ‘catching away’ in our first scripture: YOM TERU’AH, the fifth Mo’ed of Elohim, at the beginning of fall harvest season.  “Harvest”.  A day of SHOUTS and BLASTS on the Last Shofar!

This idea is supported elsewhere, too.

In our first verse [Tess 4], above, we saw that THE REMNANT [a small person? A ‘newborn’ person who is part of Israel? Jupiter, one of many stars] is ‘caught up’ just after Adoneinu, Yeshua HaMashiakh, leaves heaven and comes near to earth and SHOUTS!  Himself, along with the Messenger blowing the SHOFAR of Elohim.  Yom Teru’ah is the ‘Day of the Shout/Blast’, as that is what ‘yom teru’ah’ actually means in Hebrew.  We see a shout and a blast here in our verse [Tes 4].  And then people coming back from the dead [birth] and along with others, all of them being ‘caught up’ to meet Him IN THE AIR.  “And so shall we be with Him forever….” How so?  RESURRECTED/TRANSFORMED….  The final ‘birth’.  A very SMALL remnant.

We also see Yokhanan himself ‘shouted at’ and blasted at with a shofar, when He goes to heaven to look back down on earth and see the end things:

He was to write what he ‘had seen,’ which was the vision of Yeshua among the Menorahs; those are the things which ‘are,’ the seven letters of direct messages to seven congregations at the end of the first century; then he is to write the things that will be hereafter, which is clearly the seven year ‘tribulation’ predicted by Dani’el HaNavi.  And after receiving the seven letters, suddenly, he sees a GATE opened in Heaven.  He hears the voice ‘like a shofar’ which said, “COME UP HERE!”

“Behold, a gate was open in heaven; and the first voice which I heard was like a shofar talking with me, which said, “Come up here! And I will show you things which must COME TO PASS.”

“Aleh Henah!”  Ascend to here!  And THEN he will see things that must in the future happen, including Rev 12, where someone else ‘comes up here.’

So, Yokhanan may have actually spiritually participated in the events of Thess 4:17 and Hit 12:1-2, [and other scriptures] in order to see what is happening in our near future!  The same elements are there: the shout, the shofar, and the ascent.  He adds another element: OPEN GATES.  In the Heikhal [Temple] in the times of Messiah and the Shlikhim, the Gates of the Heikhal would open miraculously on YOM TERUAH!  This is recorded by the historian, Josephus.  So those who desired to make pilgrimage first could come into the Heikhal to worship.  The King of Yisra’el would be there.  This is also traditionally when the king of Yisra’el is to marry.

Another scripture in the Brit Khadashah also supports all of this:

“Now this I say, my brethren, that flesh and blood cannot inherit Malkhut HaElohim; neither does corruption inherit incorruption. Behold, I tell you a SOD [mystery]: we shall not all die, but we shall all be changed, in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the LAST SHOFAR; for that shofar shall sound, and the dead shall be raised incorruptible, and we shall be changed. For this corruptible must put on incorruption, and this mortal must put on immortality. So when this corruptible shall have put on incorruption, and this mortal shall have put on immortality, then shall be brought to pass the saying that is written, “Death is swallowed up in victory. O death, where is your sting? O She’ol, where is your victory?” The sting of death is sin; and the strength of sin is the Torah. But thanks be to Elohim, who has given us the victory through Adoneinu Yeshua HaMashiakh.”

Our inheritance is THE KINGDOM.

We cannot be physically in the Kingdom if we are in FLESH AND BLOOD.  One must understand that this is talking about RESURRECTION, which is the hope of our faith.  We will be new flesh and no blood, flesh and BONE, just as Yeshua was after His resurrection, with our lives sustained by G-d Himself, Bless His Name.

To explain this happening, Sha’ul tells us that he wants to show us a SOD.

A ‘Sod’ is a MYSTERY in the TORAH!  Yom Teru’ah itself is a mystery!  All the other Mo’edim are explained in VaYikra 23, their purpose is stated, but NOT this one!  For thousands of years, Jews have studied the scriptures on four levels: Peshat, Remez, D’resh, and Sod.  Sha’ul is writing very plainly about something that was ‘hidden’ until Messiah came: THE NATZAL!  The Resurrection and catching away!

Some people will NOT DIE!  They will be changed in the blink of an eye.  AT THE LAST SHOFAR!!!  Sha’ul states this very plainly, and it cannot be denied.  Again, the only true debate must be about the TIMING of a “catching away,” and not about the possibility/probability of it, since it is plainly stated on the surface of the text, in two places [here and in Tess 4], that certain people WILL be ‘caught up.’

So, not only do we have the same elements already, but, we have the day of the year AFFIRMED!  The “Last Shofar” in ancient times, in the Heikhal, was YOM TERU’AH!  There were three cyclical shofars in the Heikhal: The First Shofar, blown on Shavu’ot at the early ingathering of grains; the Last Shofar, blown on Yom Teru’ah when the later ingathering of summer grapes begins, and the GREAT SHOFAR blown on Yom Kippur, when all harvesting ceases, and Yisra’el fasts to afflict the soul and seek atonement, IN THE MIDST OF HARVEST, since Yom Kippur is the Judgment of the Damned.

When this Last Shofar sounds, according to Sha’ul, the dead “In Messiah” will rise first, and then ‘we shall be changed,’ or, bodies that could die now become bodies that cannot die.  As 1 Tess 4 tells us that this same Shofar raises the dead and then THE REMNANT, those who are CHANGED, ascend to be with Adoneinu, we can see that this resurrection is followed by the ‘catching away,’ on the SAME DAY.  In a MOMENT.

Did Yeshua ‘reveal’ this mystery?  Might His words not be where Sha’ul got it, having already studied Torah his whole life, yet having his blinders lifted by Messiah Himself and being re-taught by Messiah Himself? [Gal 1:15-19]

Yeshua did teach on this subject, and this information was transmitted to Sha’ul:

“But concerning that day and that hour, no man knows, not even the Messengers of heaven, but The Father alone. Just as in the days of No’akh, so will be the coming of The Son of Man. For as the people before the flood were eating and drinking, marrying and giving in marriage, until the day No’akh entered into the ark, and they knew nothing until the flood came and carried them all away; such will be the coming of The Son of Man. Then, two men will be in the field, one will be taken away and the other forsaken. Two women will be grinding at the handmill, one will be taken and the other forsaken. “Be alert, therefore, for you do not know at what hour your Adon will come. But know this much, that if the Adon of the house knew at what watch of the night the thief comes, he would keep awake and would not let his house be plundered. For this reason, you also be ready, for Ben HaAdam will come at an hour when you do not expect him. Who then is the faithful and wise servant, whom his Adon has appointed over his household, to give them food in due time? Blessed is that servant, when his Adon comes and finds him so doing. Truly I say to you, he will appoint him over all that he has. But if a bad servant should say in his heart, ‘Adonai will delay his coming,’ and he begins to beat his fellow servants, and to eat and drink with drunkards, the Adon of that servant will come on a day when he does not expect, and at an hour that he does not know. And he will severely scourge him, and give him a portion like that of the hypocrites; there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth.”

In this passage, Yeshua had just given a summary of ALL end time events, including what He called the ‘Great Tribulation.’  ; then, He explains when it all STARTS, in our passage above.  He summarized the events LEADING UP TO the Natzal, the Great Tribulation and the final judgment, then He takes us back to the beginning of “Et Ketz,” the seven year ‘time of the end,’ which also goes by other names.  This Et Ketz begins with Yom Teru’ah, and Yeshua explains this quite at length.  Most people get confused, because He says before this that the ‘GREAT SHOFAR’ will sound, and they will gather His chosen ones from the four winds, from one end of the universe to the other…, and they realize, correctly, that that phrase is describing the ‘end of the end’ when He puts His foot down.  This is indeed the end of Et Ketz.  Most do NOT realize that the Great Shofar, “Shofar HaGadol”, is the THIRD Shofar of the yearly Shofar cycle in the Heikhal, BLOWN ON YOM KIPPUR, SEVEN DAYS after Yom Teruah!  This is NOT the “Last Shofar” Sha’ul specifically mentioned!  [tricky, to be explained later].  He will INDEED GATHER all his chosen ones on that GREAT day, the day of the Great Shofar: those who come BACK with HIM to RULE with Him, and those who came to obey Him through the Great Tribulation, to be ruled by Him AND His co-rulers during His Millennial reign on earth.

But in our passage above, Matti 24:36, we see Him STARTING OVER and explaining when it all, Et Ketz, BEGINS!

“No man knows” that day and that hour….

This, too, is a direct reference to YOM TERUAH.  Yom Teru’ah is a 48 hour day, because it is the beginning of the year for tracking time in the Heikhal.  The Crescent NEW MOON MUST BE SEEN in order to set apart and declare the new year.  So, the ‘day’ and the ‘hour’ are UNKNOWN until they happen!  Even today, ONLY THE FATHER knows when the Khodesh of Yom Teru’ah will be seen, because He can HIDE it with clouds if He wants!  But, in this passage, Yeshua says that when it is THAT DAY, people will be ‘eating and drinking’ and marrying and giving in marriage, just like in No’akh’s day: 8 people, a tiny REMNANT, got into an ark, and the flood came and killed the rest.  The language is tricky here, and the imagery also can be, but, if we keep Yom Teru’ah in mind, and what Sha’ul showed us, we can understand this.  But, clearly, here, Yeshua is saying that some people will be taken, and the others left.

Some people like to say that those ‘taken’ are the bad ones, and that bad things happen to them, and that those ‘left’ are the good ones and are safe.  But, that gets problematic from the Aramaic texts, and against the backdrop of the next paragraph, and the next chapter.  Here, the Aramaic/Hebrew actually does mean ‘forsaken.’  But, just looking into the next paragraph we can see that someone is going to be the victim of a thief, figuratively.  Who’s the thief?

YESHUA!  To rob houses of what?  PEOPLE!  If one gives his household food in due time, he doesn’t have to worry about being forsaken!  He will be APPOINTED over all the MASTER has!  Remember, to be in the kingdom is to be resurrected at the Last Shofar!  The ones who are forsaken are also the ones who are ‘scourged’ and given a portion like that of the hypocrites….He is the ADON of them all!  But he ‘leaves’ some, to go through what comes next!  TRIBULATION.

The next chapter also relates this same idea, and ADDS Yom Teru’ah imagery to the narrative:

He explains that 10 virgins are all together, and all fall asleep.  Then they wake up, but only five have oil.  Virgins represent those who have been ‘purified’; they are all ‘believers’.  Only 5 go to the wedding.  The others are FORSAKEN!  LEFT OUT OF THE WEDDING!  [Remember the Tess passage here] After the bridegroom came HALF WAY [we will meet Him in the air], sent his two friends [Messengers] ahead with a SHOUT [Teru’ah, Yom Teru’ah, the LAST SHOFAR], The 5 virgins with oil GO TO MEET THE GROOM [in the air].  Jewish tradition tells us where they go: back to HIS HOUSE! The one He built FOR HER.  In a Jewish wedding of the first century, the couple are betrothed for up to 2 years,  while the groom builds a house and prepares their bridal chamber, where they will consummate their marriage.  ONLY the Father can say when the house is ready, and then he instructs his son to go fetch his bride, THAT NIGHT.  She KNOWS it’s almost time, because she can see the house, so she gets her friends together to WATCH for the coming of the groom.

Yeshua comforted His Talmidim on the night of Pesakh with these words:

“In my Father’s house are many rooms; if it were not so, I would have told you. I GO to prepare a PLACE for you. And if I go and prepare a place for you, I will COME AGAIN AND TAKE YOU WITH ME, so that where I am you may be also.”

Yeshua is affectively ‘betrothing’ believers to Himself that night.  He is using wedding words to describe His coming back to TAKE us with Him!  This event is a WEDDING, and, as stated before, Yom Teru’ah is the Day of the Wedding of the King.  It is also the day of the Coronation of the King.  “Those who were READY entered with him into the wedding chamber…and the door was locked….”  FOR SECURITY/SAFETY.

Yokhanan Markos, in Chapter 13, gives a more brief version of Yeshua’s teaching of end things.  And he finishes there this way:

“But concerning that day and that hour, no man knows, not even the Messengers of heaven, neither The Son, except The Father. Watch, be alert, and pray; for you do not know when the time is. It is just like a man who went on a journey, and left his house and gave authority to his servants and to each man his work, and he commanded the porter to keep awake. Be alert therefore, for you do not know when the owner of the house will come, in the evening or at midnight or at the cock-crow or in the morning. He might come suddenly and find you asleep. What I say to you I say to all of you: Be alert.”

He is again alluding to Yom Teru’ah, the Day that No Man Knows.  Be alert [ready].  “He might come suddenly and find you asleep….” Like the ten in Matti 25.

Luka also gives a couple of accounts of Yeshua’s teaching on the last days.  His first is very brief, and echoes part of Matti’s.  He gives the same No’akh analogy, but then proves that those ‘forsaken’ are those who are destroyed, as he follows that with Lot, where lot is ‘taken out,’ and the rest of the city is destroyed.

“And again, just as it happened in the days of Lot; they were eating and drinking, and buying and selling, and planting and building; But in the day when Lot went out of S’dom,   יהוה   sent down a rain of fire and sulfur from Heaven, and destroyed them all. Such will it be in the day when The Son of Man appears. In that day, he who is on the roof, with his clothes in the house, will not come down to take them; and he who is in the field will not turn back. Just remember Lot’s wife. He who desires to save his life shall lose it; and he who loses his life shall save it. I say to you that in that very night two will be in one bed; one will be taken and the other forsaken. And two women will be grinding together; one will be taken and the other forsaken. Two will be in the field; one will be taken and the other forsaken.” They answered, saying to him, “Adoneinu, to what place?” He said to them, “Wherever the Body is, there will the eagles gather.”  [Luka 17]

That last sentence throws off some.  Some English versions, sourced from the Greek, have a mistranslation, which says, ‘where the carcass is, there will the ‘vultures’ gather.’  But, the Aramaic does not say carcass, nor ‘vultures,’ but ‘guf’ and ‘nesharim’: [a guf is a living body, discussed later] Nesharim:  EAGLES!  And, it reads, ‘Heikhan Sh’HaGuf,’ and the ‘Guf’ is the ancient Jewish idea of ONE BODY made up of many souls!  The Body of Mashiakh!

“They that wait upon   יהוה   shall renew their strength; they shall ascend into the air as Nesharim!”

Luka gives another account of Yeshua teaching on the end days.

In chapter 21, after Yeshua starts from the time of the Shlikhim and covers all the way to His return to earth to destroy the wicked, [verses 8-28], and then, just as in Matti, He regroups and tells them something very compelling.

“But take heed to yourselves that your hearts may not become heavy by extravagance and drunkenness and the worries of this world, and that day come suddenly upon you. For like a downpour [Day of Vengeance] it will entrap all those who dwell on the face of all the earth [forsaken]. Therefore keep WATCH ALWAYS [like the 10, like those who ‘mount up’], and pray that you may be worthy to ESCAPE [deliver yourself] from all these things which are to happen, and that you may stand BEFORE THE SON OF MAN.”

What does ‘standing before the Son of Man’ mean?  Yom Teru’ah is the Judgment of the Righteous!  Yom Teru’ah is the day when the sheep ‘pass under the rod’ for selection as the tenth part offering. Each tenth sheep is marked with a rod dipped in scarlet for selection as the offering, and they through the gate.

This is an analogy of the ancient way of determining who the “Tzadikim” are.  The RIGHTEOUS.  It is the RIGHTEOUS who are judged and REWARDED on Yom Teru’ah.  In ancient Yisra’el, those who hungered for the “Khag” of Sukkot went up early to Yerushalayim, on Yom Teru’ah, when the gates were opened and the shofar was blown.  They RACED to become the witnesses of the Khodesh to affirm the time.  They ‘waited’ with great expectation for it.  But, most of Yisra’el would linger, only coming up for Sukkot, 15 days later, perhaps concerned about being away from business for too long.  This seems to be the same themes Yeshua is alluding to with his several ‘parables’ about this time.

Also, Hitgalut 4 shows us STANDING BEFORE THE SON OF MAN.

But, the most important portion in this whole Luka 21 passage is Yeshua ENCOURAGING us: PRAY the you may be WORTHY to ESCAPE ALL of these things…..

Is this perhaps why Sha’ul said of THE REMNANT, “comfort one another with THESE words”?

What words?

Then we who are alive AND are THE REMNANT shall be CAUGHT UP together with them in the clouds to meet Adoneinu IN THE AIR; and so [resurrected/transformed] shall we ever be with Adoneinu.”

Yokhanan’s account has Yeshua alluding to these things at the Pesakh Seder.  We have already discussed His ‘wedding language’ concerning going away to build a house to which to bring us.  But Yeshua didn’t let the analogy fall off there.

Yokhanan 16:

Then His Talmidim said to one another, “What is this that He said to us, ‘A little while, and you will not see me; and again a little while, and you will see me;’ and, ‘because I am going to My Father?’” And they said, “What is this that He said, ‘A little while?’ We cannot understand what He talks about.” Yeshua knew that they desired to ask Him, and He said to them, “Are you inquiring among yourselves concerning this that I told you, ‘a little while, and you will not see me; and again a little while, and you will see me?’ Amein, Amein, I say to you, that you will weep and wail, and yet the world will rejoice; and you will be sad, but your sadness will be changed into gladness. When a woman is in labor, she is troubled because her day has arrived; but when she has given birth to a son, she no longer remembers her troubles because of the joy that a male child is born into the world. So you also are troubled; but I will see you again, and your heart will rejoice, and your joy no man will take away from you.”

Does this not sound much like the woman giving birth in the Hitgalut?  Yeshua, here, is talking to Yisra’el; 12 MEN who would bring the B’sorah to the world, through much LABOR.  He is telling them they will see Him again, and relates that meeting to the joy of BIRTH.

There is an allusion here to the ancient idea of the “Birthpangs of Messiah,” which we will cover later.

Again, the only possible debate concerning a possible ‘rapture’ is not whether there is one, but what is the TIMING of it, and also, perhaps, WHO IS THEREMNANT?

So, back to our verse in Tess Alef Perek Dalet, and pick up in the previous verse, and also follow up with the next chapter to help nail down the timing:

“For if we believe that Yeshua died and rose again, even so those who have died in Yeshua, Elohim will bring with Him.  “For this we say to you by the very word of Adoneinu, that we who are alive and are the remnant until the coming of Adoneinu shall not precede those who are dead. For Adoneinu Himself shall descend from heaven with a shout and the voice of the Chief Messenger and with the shofar of Elohim; and those who died in Mashiakh will rise first. Then we who are alive and are the remnant shall be CAUGHT UP together with them in the clouds to meet Adoneinu IN THE AIR; and so shall we ever be with Adoneinu. Therefore, comfort one another, with these words.”

“But of the times and seasons, my brethren, you have no need that I should write to you. For you yourselves know perfectly well that the day of Adoneinu comes like a thief in the night. For when they shall say, “Peace and tranquility,” then sudden destruction will come upon them, as travail upon a woman with child; and they shall not escapeBut you, my brethren, are not in darkness that that day shall overtake you as a thief. You are all the children of light, and the children of the day; and you are not the children of the night, nor the children of darkness. Therefore let us not sleep, as do others, but let us watch and be sober. For those who sleep, sleep in the night; and those who are drunk are drunk in the night. But let us who are the children of the day be alert, putting on the breastplate of faith and love, and for a helmet put on the hope of salvation. For Elohim has not appointed us to wrath, but to obtain LIFE through Adoneinu Yeshua HaMashiakh, who died for us, that whether we wake or sleep, we shall live together with Him. Therefore comfort one another and edify one another, even as also you do.”

Sha’ul is proving several things by this previous text.  He is proving that he had taught the congregation(s) about the ‘timing’ of the coming of Messiah again.  And the nature of it, that it catches SOME people off guard, but NOTothers.  It comes like a ‘thief in the night.’  This echoes Yeshua’s teaching on the same subject.  It shows that sudden destruction comes on someone, as travail upon a woman with child.  This also alludes to the concept in the Tanakh of “The Birthpangs of Messiah”.  It says that some will not escape.  BUT, that those people who are NOT in darkness, but who watch and are sober, awake, are NOT APPOINTED TO SUFFER WRATH.  These people are in stark contrast to ‘they’ upon whom sudden destruction comes.  The ‘wake or sleep’ is the same two groups of people in the previous chapter, “dead in Messiah”  = sleep, “who are the remnant”, ‘awake.’  Both will ‘live together with Him.  Sha’ul is echoing his words in his previous chapter.

In the next letter to this same congregation, Sha’ul helps further to shore up the timing of these events.

“Now we beseech you, my brethren, concerning the coming of Adoneinu Yeshua HaMashiakh [Halfway, to meet us IN THE AIR] and concerning our gathering together with Him [as described in his former letter to the same congregation], that you let not your minds be hastily excited or troubled, neither by word nor by a spirit nor by an epistle supposedly from us, stating that the Day of Adoneinu is at hand. Let no man deceive you by any means; for that day shall not come unless it is preceded by a departure. And then the man of sin will be revealed as Ben HaAbadon, who opposes and exalts himself above all that is called “god,” or that is worshiped; so that even in the Heikhal HaElohim, he sits as Elohim, and shows himself, as though he were Elohim. Do you not remember that when I was with you I told you these things? And now you know what has prevented him [man of sin] from being revealed in his time. For the mystery of iniquity is already at work, until that which now hinders is taken out of the midst of themThen shall the Wicked One be exposed, that one whom Adoneinu Yeshua shall consume with the breath of His mouth, and shall destroy with the revelation of His coming, even he whose coming is due to the working of HaSatan, with all power and signs and lying wonders, and with all deceitfulness of unrighteousness in those who perish, because they received not the love of the truth, that they might be saved thereby. For this reason Elohim shall send them strong delusion that they should believe a lie, that all who did not believe in the truth, but preferred unrighteousness, might be condemned.”

“That day shall NOT come unless it is preceded by A DEPARTURE

Most translations have some form of ‘apostacy’ here.  Even in the ancient greek, however, the word ‘apostao’ meant simply ‘to depart,’ ‘to leave,’ ‘to exit.’  It did NOT take on the overtones of ‘heresy’ until much later, which caused it to be later rendered ‘falling away.’  But, the Aramaic word here is  מָרוֹדוּתָא maroduta, and gets translated into Hebrew as ‘rebellion.’  But, this is an unusual word, and is not rendered here as ‘rebellion’ is usually rendered in Aramaic, even though it shares the same root.  If the greek and Aramaic texts are translated from one or the other [and we believe Aramaic came first and greek was translated from them], then there is something amiss either way concerning the translation of this word.  “Apostao” does not turn easily into ‘rebellion,’ if the translation went from Greek to Aramaic, especially given its ancient definition.  And ‘maroduta,’ IF it does mean ‘rebellion,’ should have been rendered into greek as rebellion, and not ‘departure,’ much less the later ‘heresy’ or ‘falling away.’  The greek word for ‘rebellion’ is antarsía, not apostao.  Something is amiss.  The usual rendering in Aramaic of ‘rebellion’ is mara, marar, mar, marad.  NOT ‘maroduta.’  This word seems to escape most dictionaries of ancient Aramaic, which suggest this form fell out of use.  Further, the Aramaic word for rebellion in the Tanakh is sarvanut, mirad, and satya.  Maroduta does have the root marad in it, but it is heavily modified, unlike in any other text, “OT” or “NT.”

But, even IF this word does mean ‘rebellion,’ [which is suspect at this point], this cannot mean a ‘falling away,’ because there has been a ‘falling away’ from His Truth for nearly 2,000 years!  WHATEVER this is is supposed to immediately precede the revelation of the Son of Perdition.  Let’s see if context explains this maraduta any better?

“For the ‘mystery of iniquity’ is ALREADY at work [the spirit that will eventually embody the Sheker HaMashiakh, the Son of Perdition], UNTIL that which NOW hinders is TAKEN OUT of the midst of THEM”.

Might this be the ‘departure’ previously mentioned?

This sentence seems further to explain the ‘departure’ and the immediate revelation of the mystery of iniquity that follows.  “THEN” [after SOMETHING [remnant] SOMEONE [righteous] is TAKEN OUT OF THE WAY.  A ‘rebellion’ would seem to be the people of the Son of Perdition who would rebel, and it seems THEY would need still to be there for/with him.  What or whom is ‘taken out of the midst of them”?

Remember, “knowing this first, that not every prophetic writing is made clear in its own book.” Kefa Bet 1:20  The converse of this statement is that prophetic writings explain EACH OTHER.  Yeshua said in several places that some will be ‘taken out’.  Consider, his ratio was 1:1, meaning, 1 is taken and the other is left.  This fits the ‘midst of them’ idea.  The righteous will be among the unrighteous when this happens.  Right now, it is we who live in the Ruakh and keep the commandments that are standing in the way of the spirit of Sheker HaMashiakh.  That is our job!  ONLY AFTER WE have departedcan the Son of Perdition be revealed!  His last sentence makes this clear: that all who did not believe in the truth, but preferred unrighteousnessmight be condemned.

So, the timing of all of this is before the man of sin is revealed.  He is clearly revealed as soon as the Tribulation starts, as he makes a contract with Yisra’el for 7 years.  So, this event must happen first.  This fits in the narrative of the Mo’edim as a model for the complete ministry of Yeshua, and the next Mo’ed in line being Yom Teru’ah.

It is worth repeating here that Yom Teru’ah precedes the seven “Days of terror” in ancient Jewish apocalyptical works.  These seven days fall between Yom Teru’ah and Yom Kippur.  They prefigure the ‘tribulation,’ the ‘Time of Jacob’s trouble,’ perfectly.  In the Heikhal, the kohen Gadol goes into a chamber with His wife, for SEVEN DAYS, during the ‘days of terror,’ and does not come out until Yom Kippur.  This is alluding to Yeshua taking His bride to Himself, returning to earth on Yom Kippur to judge the wicked.  We will revisit this when we get into the Tanakh scriptures that support ALL of this.

So, Elohim brings those who have died in Yeshua WITH Yeshua, to RISE from the dead!  Their neshama, their spiritual being, has been in the bosom of Avraham, and now they are returning with Yeshua, and their BODIES are rising from the dead.  The Remnant is those ALIVE at that moment who are IN MESSIAH.  These are NOT ALL believers, but these are they who have the Confession/Testimony of Yeshua AND keep the commandments!

In Hebrew, the word here for ‘The Remnant is “הַנִּשְׁאָרִים”.

If you know Hebrew at all, you can see how very much like Nesharim, EAGLES, this word is!  Here is the word “eagles” from Luka 17:37: הַנְּשָׁרִים

This word NISHarim [remaining/remnant] is Nesharim [eagles] with an Alef in it!  And an Alef represents ELOHIM!  “Elohim will bring them, [‘eagles’] with Him!”  [see verse above]

But, we must have a practical, peshat [plain meaning] , biblical definition of ‘remnant.’

In the Tanakh, the remnant has ALWAYS been those in Yisra’el who are FAITHFUL to His Torah, His WAY, those who trust in His Salvation, always.

“Except  יהוה  Tzeva’ot had left unto us a very small remnant, we should have been as S’dom, we should have been like unto Amorah.” Yesha-Yahu 1:9

Sha’ul explains to us that this ‘remnant’ is made up of those Jews who looked for His Tzedaka and Salvation, totally trusting in Him and obeying Him.

Rom 9:27  “Yesha-Yahu also preached concerning the B’nei Yisra’el, “Though the number of the children of Yisra’el should be as the sand of the sea, only a remnant shall be saved.”

And Yokhanan says of the remnant: “and he went to make war with the remnant of her children, who keep the mitzvot of Elohim AND have the testimony of Yeshua.”

There are many who ‘believe’ and are genuinely saved, but who do NOT keep the Mitzvot of Elohim, the simple, plain, undeniable behaviors He expects of us that are so easy to do, much less the difficult things of the Torah.  That remnant is no different and is part of the former remnant.  The few IN ISRAEL who OBEY, and not just believe, have ALWAYS been His remnant, just as Sha’ul said.  Just as any who are alive now, should Messiah come back tomorrow, would be ‘caught up TOGETHER’ with them to be the remnant that escapes.  In this passage [Rev 12], the ‘infant’ has already been caught up, but the WOMAN of Yisra’el still remains, and her ‘seed’ are pursued by the ‘dragon,’ that slant serpent, HaSatan.  These are people who become obedient believers DURING the tribulation through JEWISH WITNESSES.

The REMNANT is ALWAYS a VERY SMALL number, spoken about HUNDREDS of times in the Tanakh, always ESCAPING JUDGMENT!  This is a spiritual precept, a precedent.  In this passage [Rev12], the remnant is made up of those saved DURING the tribulation, as Elohim says He ALWAYS reserves a remnant for Himself, including during the darkest hours of human history.  And for the remnant, there is always a ‘natzal,’ a ‘pelat’, a ‘lakakh’ [snatching away/deliverance, ‘rescue, ‘taking out’].

The FIRST ‘Remnant’ was No’akh and his family:

וַיִּשָּׁאֶר אַךְ-נֹחַ וַאֲשֶׁר אִתּוֹ, בַּתֵּבָה.

This is a verb form of the word ‘remnant’, or ‘to be a remnant’.

A ‘remnant’ is something ‘saved for later.’  It is a small part of a larger portion that is pulled OUT and saved for later use.  This is also the root of ‘se’or,’ for the lump of dough that is pulled out of a batch of dough, and set aside to make the NEXT batch of dough!  THAT is what a remnant is.

Without the first letter, vav וַ , this would read, ‘will remain’ or ‘will become a remnant.’  The vav inverts the tense.

No’akh will be a remnant with the vav.

So, in this case, the remnant escaped the judgment.  It is interesting to note here that No’akh and family sat in the safety of the ark for SEVEN DAYSbefore the waters of the flood came.  And they rode the waters of the flood, ABOVE the danger.  Similarly, if the natzal is a true thing, those who enter the Kheder of Messiah will be ‘safe,’ and at the end come back with the vessel of salvation.  The small remnant is ‘set aside’, ‘saved for later,’ to come to earth to ‘leaven it’ with GOOD leaven!

So, No’akh sets a precedent: before Elohim judges[with punishment] the earth, HE TAKES THE RIGHTEOUS OUT OF IT.

“No’akh matza khen b’einei יהוה … No’akh was in his generations a Tzadik, and whole-hearted; No’akh walked with Elohim.”

Gen 6:8-9

A Tzadik is one who obeys the Torah.

Another person ‘walked with Elohim’.  Khanokh.  And Elohim TOOK him.  And that one named his son, ‘His death will bring.’  And Metuselah died RIGHT BEFORE THE FLOOD.  So, we actually have a natzal TWICE before the flood: Khanokh, and No’akh and his family.

Yeshua said that in the last days it would be like it was in the days of No’akh.  MOST people were going about their lives, unconcerned about the unrighteousness around them.  But No’akh was obedient, and built a place where the righteous could go to escape.

Yeshua is doing the same, as we speak.  He has gone to prepare a place for us, and HE said that He would come and get us, and take us to where He is, where, in His Father’s house, there are many ‘khederim’ [rooms]. [Yokhanan 13]  We, too, are building something, according to Ya’akov in Ma’asei 15.

It is worth noting here, that in Yesha-Yahu 26 we see a clear allusion to those ‘khederim’.

Yesha-Yahu 26 begins with a very interesting phrase that sets the timing of the events described:

“In that day shall this song be sung in the land of Yehudah :’We have a strong city; walls and bulwarks does He appoint for Yeshua[h]’. Open the gates, that the righteous nation that keeps faithfulness may enter in. The mind stayed on You, You keep in perfect shalom; because it trusts in You. Trust in יהוה forever, for in Yah is יהוה  , an everlasting Rock. For He has brought down them that dwell on high, the lofty city, laying it low, laying it low even to the ground, bringing it even to the dust. The foot shall tread it down, even the feet of the poor, and the steps of the needy. The way of the just is straight; You, Most Upright, make plain the path of HaTzadik. Yes, in the way of Your judgments, O ,יהוה have we waited for You; to Your Name and to Your memorial is the desire of our soul. With my soul have I desired You in the night; yes, with my spirit within me have I sought You earnestly; for when Your judgments are in the earth, the inhabitants of the world learn tzedaka. Let favor be shown to the wicked, yet will he not learn tzedaka; in the land of uprightness will he deal wrongfully, and will not behold the majesty of “יהוה ” ,יהוה Your hand was lifted up, yet they see not; they shall see with shame Your zeal for the people; yes, fire shall devour Your adversaries.  ,יהוה You will establish shalom for us; for You have indeed wrought all our works for us.  O יהוה our Elohim, other lords beside You have had dominion over us; but by You only do we make mention of Your Name.  The dead live not, the shades rise not; to that end have You punished and destroyed them, and made all their memory to perish. You have gotten Yourself honor with the nations, O יהוה , yes, exceedingly great honor with the nations; You are honored unto the farthest ends of the earth.” ” יהוה , in trouble have they sought You, silently they poured out a prayer when Your chastening was upon them. Like a woman with child, that draws near the time of her delivery, is in pain and cries out in her pangs; so have we been at Your presence, O יהוה  , We have been with child, we have been in pain, we have given birth to wind; we have not wrought any deliverance in the land; neither are the inhabitants of the world come to life. Your dead shall live, my dead bodies shall arise. Awake! And sing, you that dwell in the dust! For Your dew is as the dew of light, and the earth shall bring to life the shades.” “Go, my people, come into your khederim, and shut your doors about you; hide yourself for a little moment, until the indignation passes. For, behold, יהוה comes forth out of His place to visit upon the inhabitants of the earth their iniquity; the earth also shall disclose her blood, and shall no more cover her slain.”

You may remember that the GATES are opened on Yom Teru’ah [Hitgalut 4].  In this passage, we suddenly see that Yom Teru’ah is associated with the RISING OF THE DEAD!  With Yisra’el GIVING BIRTH.  With someone GOING INTO THEIR CHAMBERS.  And they are told they will stay there until ‘indignation’ passes, equating that to יהוה coming out to visit iniquity upon the inhabitants of the earth.  This is a very, very clear picture that someone is going to enter the Jerusalem above to be safely hidden away from tribulation, on Yom Teru’ah!  The next chapter describes that seven year period of ‘trouble’ very vividly, and shows when it ENDS:

“And it shall come to pass in that day, that יהוה will knock off [His fruit] from the flood of the River unto the Brook of Mitzrayim, and you shall be gathered one by one, O B’nei Yisra’el.”  “And it shall come to pass in that day, that The Great Shofar shall blast; and they shall come that were lost in the land of Ashur, and they that were dispersed in the land of Mitzrayim; and they shall worship  יהוה  in Har HaKodesh at Yerushalayim.”

The beginning of chapter 27 describes the great tribulation, summarizing things that Yokhanan details, concerning the ‘dragon/serpent,’ etc., that occur during the tribulation.  At the END of this is when the GREAT shofar of Yom Kippur will blast, and THEN NATURAL Yisra’el  [the VINE planted in the earth, learned from earlier parts of Yesha-Yahu that this is natural Yisra’el.] is gathered to Yerushalayim. This is what Yeshua is summarizing in Matti 24.

What makes this even more compelling, is that Yo’el seems to close off the sequence concerning the ‘kheder’.


“Blast the shofar in Tzion, set apart a fast, call a solemn assembly; gather the people, set apart the congregation, assemble the elders, gather the children, and those that nurse at the breast; let the bridegroom go forth from his kheder, and the bride out of her khuppah.”

The fast that is also called a ‘solemn assembly’ is Yom Kippur.

“But on the tenth day of this seventh khodesh is Yom HaKippurim; there shall be a Mikra Kodesh unto you, and you shall afflict your souls

The biblical definition of afflicting the soul is fasting.

So, we have the blast of a shofar, and a call to fast, all in the midst of the discussion about “Yom יהוה .”  In Jewish eschatology, that day, Yom יהוה , is Yom Kippur.  Yo’el tells us here that the bridegroom comes of the ‘kheder’ and the bride out of her ‘khuppah’.  The khuppah is IN the kheder!  She comes out of the khuppah behind the bridegroom at the blast of the Shofar, at the beginning of Yom Kippur, to get ready for the offerings that were to be made in the morning. [Biblical days begin at evening]  This is the imagery invoked by the customs in the Heikhal, where the Kohen Gadol has gone into a ‘secret chamber’ for the seven ‘terrible days’ between Yom Teru’ah and Yom Kippur.  Both of these days [Yom Teru’ah is a 48 hour day, actually two days] and the seven days [the days between Yom Teruah and Yom Kippur] are combined to be the ‘Days of Awe’, or ‘Terrible Days’, ending on Yom Kippur.  Yo’el shows us other language that indicates this is Yom Kippur when the Bride and Groom come forth:

“Before them the earth quakes, the heavens tremble; the sun and the moon are become black, and the stars withdraw their shining. And יהוה utters His voice before His army; for His camp is very great, for he is mighty that executes His Davar; for great is Yom יהוה , and very terrible; and who can abide it?”

So, one can see that “The Day of the VENGEANCE of Eloheinu,” where Yeshua left off, is this day.  Which must be AFTER the former days [we will see that just later], where the B’sorah is declared, people are freed, healed, and given sight.

The DAY of יהוה , or Yom יהוה , is actually a 1,000 year period, and has been thought so in Yisra’el since BEFORE Messiah came to earth.  It is the last 1,000 year period of 7,000 years allotted for the world.  A “world week”.  It begins when the Shofar of Yom Teru’ah blasts, and ends 1,000 years later on Yom Kippur.  But, each year, Yom Kippur ‘represents’ Yom יהוה ,  and the days leading up to it are therefore ‘terrible’ or ‘aweful’ days, days filled with awe and fear.  These days are preceded by 30 days that lead up to Yom Teru’ah, called “Teshuvah”, or repentance, in preparation for the Judgments of Yom Teru’ah and Yom Kippur.  Yom Teru’ah is the judgment of the Tzadikim, the Righteous Ones, and Yom Kippur is the judgment of the wicked, Avalim.

Kolossim 3:3  returning WITH Him.

When Mashi’akh, who is our life, shall appear, then shall you also appear with Him in glory.

The Tanakh is replete with imagery and allusion to this day, called Yom Teru’ah, when there will be the blast of the Last Shofar of Elohim, when the dead will rise, and when judgment will BEGIN, with the judgment of the righteous, and the judgment of the damned.

This article was taught in a study at our synagogue, with additional information.  You can view the complete study on our Congregation Bat-Tzion YouTube channel playlist below.

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